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Mitochondrial dysfunction and resulting changes in adiposity have been observed in the offspring of animals fed a high fat (HF) diet. As iron is an important component of the mitochondria, we have studied the offspring of female rats fed complete (Con) or iron-deficient (FeD) rations for the duration of gestation to test for similar effects. The FeD offspring were ~12% smaller at weaning and remained so because of a persistent reduction in lean tissue mass. The offspring were fed a complete (stock) diet until 52 weeks of age after which some animals from each litter were fed a HF diet for a further 12 weeks. The HF diet increased body fat when compared with animals fed the stock diet, however, prenatal iron deficiency did not change the ratio of fat:lean in either the stock or HF diet groups. The HF diet caused triglyceride to accumulate in the liver, however, there was no effect of prenatal iron deficiency. The activity of the mitochondrial electron transport complexes was similar in all groups including those challenged with a HF diet. HF feeding increased the number of copies of mitochondrial DNA and the prevalence of the D-loop mutation, however, neither parameter was affected by prenatal iron deficiency. This study shows that the effects of prenatal iron deficiency differ from other models in that there is no persistent effect on hepatic mitochondria in aged animals exposed to an increased metabolic load.
A survey of about 100 lines of sight was made using the coudé auxiliary telescope and the coudé spectrograph of the Shane 3m telescope of the Lick Observatory. the data acquisition required 7 observing seasons. the spectra were recorded photographically at 17Ao/mm using a Varo tube intensifier. Each plate was separately calibrated for intensity and wavelength. the plates were measured using the PDS microdensitometer of the Royal Greenwich Observatory, Herstmonceux, and that data reduced on STARLINK using procedures developed by D.W.T. Baines. Care was taken to treat all photographic material in a consistent manner throughout the duration of the survey. the reduced data may therefore be considered self-consistent. the emulsion types used were (principally) Kodak IIIaF and (more rarely) 103aD.
HR 6469 consists of an evolved G5 star and a close pair of fainter stars, probably both on the main sequence. The period of the close pair is just over two days, and shallow eclipses have been detected (Boyd et al. 1985), although no analysis of the light curve has been published. The wide system has a period of about 5.5 years, and has been resolved by speckle interferometry (McAlister et al. 1983). The G5 star and the primary of the close pair are detectable in the spectrum, with the latter showing modest rotational broadening. Spectral types and rotational velocities for the evolved star and the brighter component of the close pair have been published by Strassmeier & Fekel (1990).
This editorial proposes a shift in emphasis in the field of mental health epidemiology in conflict-affected settings. After a brief summary of the nature of contemporary armed conflicts, we consider the current and potential roles that epidemiology can play with regard to: (1) establishing the burden of mental disorders; (2) identifying risk and protective factors; and (3) intervention research. We advocate for improved methodological rigor; more attention to mixed methods approaches and multi-level longitudinal research; inclusion of the determinants of mental health beyond conflict-related violence; and consideration of a wider array of mental health outcomes. We particularly highlight the importance of expanding interest to epidemiological research that advances prevention and promotion interventions (e.g., in the early childhood period), in order to fill the gap between epidemiology and mental health practice in conflict-affected settings.
Binary mixtures of a rodlike poly(p-phenylene pyromellitimide) (PMDA-PDA) and a flexible 6F-BDAF polyimide synthesized from hexafluoroisopropylidene diphthalic anhydride and 2,2-bis(4-aminophenoxy-p-phenylene) hexafluoropropane were prepared by solution-blending of the meta-PMDA-PDA poly(amic ethyl ester) and 6F-BDAF poly(amic acid) precursors, followed by solvent evaporation and thermal imidization. The size scale of the phase separation, as measured by light scattering, is ca. I μm or smaller in most cases. Dynamical mechanical thermal analysis measurements indicate that the glass transition temperature of 6F-BDAF is unaffected in all of the mixtures studied, indicating complete demixing of rodlike and flexible polyimides in agreement with theory. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show a strong surface segregation of 6F-BDAF in mixtures containing as low as 10% by weight of the 6F-BDAF component in the bulk. The mixtures with PMDA-PDA as the major matrix component therefore maintain excellent bulk properties of rodlike polymers, i.e., high modulus to 500°C, and low coefficients of thermal expansion (< ca. 10 ppm/°C). On the other hand, the surface properties of the mixtures are dominated by the flexible 6F-BDAF, resulting in excellent polymer/polymer self-adhesion (lamination) properties between fully imidized films.
We have investigated the conformation – order relationships of four aromatic polyimides prepared by thermal imidization of the precursor poly(amic acids) in thin films. They are: (i) PMDA-4,4′-ODA polyimide from pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and 4,4′-oxydianiline (ODA) monomers; (ii) PMDA-PDA polyimide from PMDA and p-phenylene diamine (PDA); (iii) PMDA-Benzidine polyimide from PMDA and benzidine and (iv) BPDA-PDA polyirnide from biphenylene tetracarboxylicdianhydride (BPDA) and PDA. X-ray diffraction results and their analyses by molecular modeling show that all the four polyimides exhibit extended chain conformations in various smectic-type ordered structures that form monomer repeat layers but differ in the details of interchain packing. Furthermore, the polyimide chains are highly aligned along the film plane.
Chemical methods of processing ceramics have the potential to overcome many of the processing-related obstacles that have hindered widespread commercialization. The Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has focused on the development of polymeric precursors to silicon nitride (Si3N4). One such precursor, perhydropolysilazane (or PHPS), has been shown to be a useful binder for Si3N4 powder processing, a useful matrix precursor for the polymer infiltration/pyrolysis (PIP) processing of fiber-reinforced Si3N4, and a useful ceramic coating precursor for the repair of oxidation protection coatings on carbon-carbon composites. While conventional, thermal pyrolyses of these preceramnics has been sufficient to demonstrate their potential, substantial cost savings could be realized if the polymer-to-ceramic conversion could be instigated with electromagnetic energy. We have investigated the use of millimeter wave heating as a means of converting PHPS into Si3N4, and report here the results of our efforts to produce bulk compacts, coatings, and fiber-reinforced ceramics.
915 MHz microwave heating has been used to drive the CO oxidation reaction over Pd/Al2O3 without significantly affecting the reaction kinetics. As compared to an identical conventionally heated system, the activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and reaction order with respect to CO were unchanged. Temperature was measured using a thermocouple extrapolation technique. Microwave-induced thermal gradients were found to play a significant role in kinetic observations.
Surveys by digital side-scan sonar, RoxAnnTM acoustic ground discrimination systems, multibeam echosounder and a sub-bottom profiling system showed that a Modiolus modiolus reef, in the Irish Sea off Pen Llŷn, north-west Wales, had a distinctive morphology and acoustic characteristics. The extent of the reef could therefore be determined and the benthic structure reliably mapped. The biogenic reef is in an area with moderately strong tidal currents and overlays lag gravel and cobbles with patchy sand veneers. The mussels form an undulating surface, orientated perpendicular to the current, with an average wavelength of 11.7 m and amplitude of 0.24 m that is significantly different from the surrounding seabed. Reef deposits reach a thickness of 1 m on top of the underlying lag gravels. The characteristic reef surface morphology helps distinguish the reef from the surrounding seabed on side-scan sonar and multibeam echosounder records and the undulations create the spatial complexity that influences the small-scale distribution of the associated epifauna, and infauna, reported in papers II and III of this series. The M. modiolus reef was recorded in the same location 40 y ago and has probably persisted there for over 150 y. Monitoring implications are discussed.
Background. The long-term use of methamphetamine (MAMP) can result in psychosis but it is not clear why some individuals develop psychotic symptoms, while others use MAMP regularly over long periods and remain unscathed. We set out to characterize MAMP users and to examine the relationship of pre-morbid personality, pre-morbid social function and other psychiatric disorders to MAMP psychosis.
Method. Four hundred and forty-five amphetamine users were recruited from a psychiatric hospital and a detention centre in Taipei, and were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS). Their parents were interviewed with the Premorbid Schizoid and Schizotypal Traits (PSST) and the Premorbid Social Adjustment (PSA) schedules. Pre-morbid characteristics and psychiatric co-morbidity were compared between the MAMP users with a lifetime diagnosis of MAMP psychosis and those without.
Results. The MAMP users with psychosis presented a clinical picture which mimicked the positive symptoms of schizophrenia: 85% had auditory hallucinations; 71% persecutory delusions; 63% delusions of reference. Compared with their non-psychotic counterparts, these MAMP users were younger at first MAMP use, used larger amounts of MAMP, had a significantly higher mean PSST score, and higher rates of major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence and antisocial personality disorder.
Conclusions. Earlier and larger use of MAMP was associated with increased risk of psychosis. Our data are also compatible with the view that pre-morbid schizoid/schizotypal personality predisposes MAMP users to develop psychosis, and that the greater the personality vulnerability, the longer the psychosis will persist.
Australia, with its large continental shelf, requires faster and more economic methods of conducting hydrographic survey. Backed by the Royal Australian Navy an experimental programme to investigate airborne laser methods was commenced in the mid 1970s and completed in 1984. This programme demonstrated that airborne laser depth sounding can be used effectively in Australian coastal waters. This paper reviews the achievements of the experimental programme and describes some features of LADS, a ‘Laser Airborne Depth Sounder’ planned for operational use by the RAN Hydrographic Service. The paper was presented at the Congress of the International Association of Institutes of Navigation, Tokyo, 1–5 October 1985.
The pattern and severity of alcohol withdrawal in 49 alcohol dependent subjects admitted to the Manchester Detoxification Centre are described. Assessment over 10 days involved the use of the Selected Severity Assessment Scale (SSA) and allocation of patients to subgroups of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. There were associations between tremor, clouding of sensorium, hallucinations and convulsions (items of the SSA) and the four pre-delirious clinical sub-groups identified. We concluded that clinical assessment of the pre-delirious stage took into account these four variables and that there was little value in the routine use of the SSA on a unit such as ours.
The ancient village of Carn Euny, formerly known as Chapel Euny, lies on a south-west slope just above the 500 foot contour in the parish of Sancreed in West Cornwall (fig. 1). The granite uplands of the region are rich in antiquities, as a glance at a recent survey shows (Russell 1971), not least those of the prehistoric period. The hill on which the site is situated is crowned by the circular Iron Age Fort of Caer Brane (pl. 27). Across the dry valley to the north-west rises the mass of Bartinny Down, with its barrows, while in the valley below the site near the hamlet of Brane is a small, well preserved entrance grave and other evidence of prehistoric activity. To the south-east about one mile away is the recently excavated village of Goldherring dating from the first few centuries of our era (Guthrie 1969). From later times, the holy well of St Uny and the former chapel which gave its name to the site, lie nearby to the west. The village contains a fine souterrain, locally known as a fogou, after a Cornish word meaning a cave (Thomas 1966, 79).
Nothing appears to have been known of the settlement or Fogou before the first half of the 19th century when the existence of an unexplored fogou at Chapel Uny is first mentioned by the Reverend John Buller (1842), shortly followed by Edmonds (1849) who described to the Penzance Natural History and Antiquarian Society an ‘Ancient Cave’ which had been discovered by miners prospecting for tin.
Pangola grass grown with and without sulphur fertilizer was cut as a 7-week regrowth to measure voluntary intake and digestibility by sheep. To determine the extent of a simple sulphur deficiency half the sheep on each feed were supplemented with 0·6 gsulphur daily. Retention time of feed in the reticulo-rumen and proportion of feed digested anterior to the duodenum was also determined.
Sulphur fertilizer increased the sulphur content of the pasture from 0·09 to 0·15%, voluntary intake of dry matter from 44·4 to 64·1 g/kg W0·75/day and dry-matter digestibility from 55·2 to 60·2%. Sulphur fertilizer reduced the retention time in the reticulo-rumen by 16% and increased the extent of dry-matter digestion before the duodenum from 13 to 34%.
Feeding a sulphur supplement increased dry-matter digestibility of the low sulphur feed to that found with sulphur fertilized pangola grass but only accounted for 63% of the difference in voluntary intake.
It was concluded that fertilizer sulphur leads to large increases in both voluntary intake and digestibility of sulphur deficient grass and that the improvement in nutritive value may be more than can be achieved by feeding a sulphur supplement.
The spraying of crops using light aircraft or helicopters poses a number of problems or hazards to the agricultural aviation industry. The toxicity hazard to humans and to neighbouring crops, due to drift, have already been considered in detail in previous symposia and much information is available on this subject. Another hazard which has not received much prominence, possibly due to the lack of incidents, or the reporting of them, and which is associated with the handling of flammable liquids is that of a fire or explosion risk. This is particularly true for spraying operations; incidents arising from aeroplane or helicopter crashes are rather obvious and these are not considered in this paper. The paper attempts to describe hazardous conditions and what steps can be taken to minimise fire and explosion risks.
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