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The study investigated whether different dietary energy and protein sources affect laying performance, antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and quality of salted yolks in laying ducks. In all, 360 19-week-old Longyan ducks were randomly assigned to four diets in a factorial arrangement (2×2). The four diets consisted of two energy sources, corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and two protein sources, soybean meal (SM) and rapeseed meal with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (RMD), and each treatment contained six replicates of 15 birds each. The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 10.84 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 17%). The results showed that egg production, average egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio were not affected by diets (P>0.05). Plasma contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH/oxidized glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were lower (P<0.05) in ducks fed the RMD diets compared with those fed SM diets with a substantial increase (P=0.006) in plasma content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Egg yolks from ducks fed SO diets had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids compared with CO diets (P<0.001). Similarly, ducks fed RMD diets had a higher content of PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio in fresh yolks (P<0.001), and increased salted yolk MDA, carbonylated proteins content and incidence of hard salted yolks (P<0.05) compared with SM diets. Scanning electron microscopy showed that salted yolks contained rougher polyhedral granules and fewer fat droplets, and were surrounded with a layer of bunchy fibers in ducks fed SO+RMD than those fed CO+SM diet. In conclusion, the current study showed that feeding laying ducks with diets containing SO or RMD reduced antioxidant capacity and increased egg yolk concentrations of PUFA. It appeared that egg yolks from ducks fed these diets were more sensitive to lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation during salting, and reduced the quality of salted yolks.
We positionally match sources observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey. Practically all 2MASS sources are matched to an SDSS source within 2 arcsec; ~11% of them are optically resolved galaxies and the rest are dominated by stars. About 1/3 of FIRST sources are matched to an SDSS source within 2 arcsec; ~80% of these are galaxies and the rest are dominated by quasars. Based on these results, we project that by the completion of these surveys the matched samples will include about 107 stars and 106 galaxies observed by both SDSS and 2MASS, and about 250,000 galaxies and 50,000 quasars observed by both SDSS and FIRST. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the optical, infrared and radio properties for the extragalactic sources from the matched samples. In particular, we find that the fraction of quasars with stellar colors missed by the SDSS spectroscopic survey is probably not larger than ~10%, and that the optical colors of radio-loud quasars are ~0.05 mag. redder (with 4σ significance) than the colors of radio-quiet quasars.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that was caused by a novel bunyavirus, SFTSV. The study aimed to disclose the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SFTSV infection in China so far. An integrated clinical database comprising 1920 SFTS patients was constructed by combining first-hand clinical information collected from SFTS sentinel hospitals (n = 1159) and extracted data (n = 761) from published literature. The considered variables comprised clinical manifestations, routine laboratory tests of acute infection, hospitalization duration and disease outcome. SFTSV-IgG data from 19 119 healthy subjects were extracted from the published papers. The key clinical variables, case-fatality rate (CFR) and seroprevalence were estimated by meta-analysis. The most commonly seen clinical manifestations of SFTSV infection were fever, anorexia, myalgia, chill and lymphadenopathy. The major laboratory findings were elevated lactate dehydrogenase, aminotransferase, followed by thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, elevated alanine transaminase and creatine kinase. A CFR of 12·2% was estimated, significantly higher than that obtained from national reporting data, but showing no geographical difference. In our paper, the mortality rate was about 1·9 parts per million. Older age and longer delay to hospitalization were significantly associated with fatal outcome. A pooled seroprevalence of 3·0% was obtained, which increased with age, while comparable for gender. This study represents a clinical characterization on the largest group of SFTS patients up to now. A higher than expected CFR was obtained. A wider spectrum of clinical index was suggested to be used to identify SFTSV infection, while the useful predictor for fatal outcome was found to be restricted.
Q fever, first described in 1937, is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii that has long been considered an under-reported and under-diagnosed illness. In China, the disease was initially reported in 1950 and in the last 25 years (1989–2013) there have been 29 reports on Q fever in China, nearly half of which were in the last 5 years. These publications have largely been in Chinese and in this review we summarize their findings to enable a better understanding of Q fever in China. The overall prevalence of C. burnetii infections in the reports is 10% (1139/11 209) in people, 15% (288/1918) in cattle and 12% (176/1440) in goats. These infections occurred widely in China with positive people and/or animals reported in 64 cities/municipalities from 19 provinces, particularly those in the eastern, western and northern areas. Cattle and goats had the highest seroprevalences of all the domestic animals studied and a wide variety of ticks were found to be infected. Mice were also commonly infected and had high copy numbers of C. burnetii DNA, suggesting they might be important in the epidemiology of Q fever in China.
In this talk, we will show the beaming effect for Fermi/LAT blazars, then we discuss the correlations between γ-ray luminosity and other parameters, such as radio Doppler factors, superluminal motions, and core-dominance parameters. We also compare the Doppler factors determined from the γ-ray luminosity, X-ray emissions, and the short-term time scales with those from other methods. Our discussions suggest that γ-ray emissions may be strongly beamed.
Variability is one of the extreme observational properties of BL Lacertae objects. AO 0235+164 is a well studied BL Lac through the whole electro-magnetic wavebands, it is violently variable in the optical bands. In the present work, we show its optical R band photometric observations carried out during the period of Nov. 2006 to Dec. 2012 using the Ap6E CCD camera attached to the primary focus of the 70 cm meniscus telescope at Abastumani Observatory, Georgia. It shows a large variation of ΔR = 4.88 mag (14.20 - 19.08 mag) during our monitoring period. When periodicity analysis methods are adopted to its R observations from our Abastumani monitoring programme and those in the literature, the signs of some periods, P1 = 8.26 yr, P2 = 0.55 yr, P3 = 0.85 yr, P4 = 1.99 yr are found.
Narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies are a sub-class of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with relatively low-mass black holes, accreting near the Eddington rate. A small fraction of them is radio-loud and harbors relativistic jets. As a class, these provide us with new insights into the cause(s) of radio-loudness, the blazar phenomenon at low black hole masses, and the operation of radio-mode feedback. The NLS1 galaxy RXJ2314.9+2243 is remarkable for its multi-wavelength properties. We present new radio observations taken at Effelsberg, and a summary of the recent results from our multi-wavelength study. RXJ2314.9+2243 is radio-loud, luminous in the infrared, has a flat X-ray spectrum and peculiar UV spectrum, and hosts an exceptionally broad and blueshifted [OIII]λ5007 emission line, indicating the presence of a strong outflow. RXJ2314.9+2243 likely represents an extreme case of AGN induced feedback in the local universe.
The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES), is a global robotic
observatory network, which started in 1998 with Spanish leadership devoted to study
optical emissions from gamma ray bursts (GRBs) that occur in the Universe. We present shot
history and current status of BOOTES network. The Network philosophy, science and some
details of 117 GRBs followed-up are discussed.
In recent years, there has been significant effort in the synthesis of nanocrystalline spinel ferrites due to their unique properties. Among them, zinc ferrite has been widely investigated for countless applications. As traditional ferrite synthesis methods are energy- and time-intensive, there is need for a resource-effective process that can prepare ferrites quickly and efficiently without compromising material quality. We report on a novel microwave-assisted soft-chemical synthesis technique in the liquid medium for synthesis of ZnFe2O4 powder below 100 °C, within 5 min. The use of β-diketonate precursors, featuring direct metal-to-oxygen bonds in their molecular structure, not only reduces process temperature and duration sharply, but also leads to water-soluble and non-toxic by-products. As synthesized powder is annealed at 300 °C for 2 hrs in a conventional anneal (CA) schedule. An alternative procedure, a 2-min rapid anneal at 300 °C (RA) is shown to be sufficient to crystallize the ferrite particles, which show a saturation magnetization (MS) of 38 emu/g, compared with 39 emu/g for a 2-hr CA. This signifies that our process is efficient enough to reduce energy consumption by ∼85% just by altering the anneal scheme. Recognizing the criticality of anneal process to the energy budget, a more energy-efficient variation of the reaction process was developed, which obviates the need for post-synthesis annealing altogether. It is shown that the process also can be employed to deposit crystalline thin films of ferrites.
Human genomic structural variation (SV) is significant factor in genome complexity, and thus has substantial implications to the cause, development and progression of genetic diseases. These SVs, ranging in size of 1kbp-1Mbp, are challenging to assess with current technologies. As such, we have developed a commercial system (nanoAnalyzer® 1000) for the rapid linear analysis of genomes at single-molecule level.
The core of our system is a nanofluidic chip consisting of an array of channels with a diameter less than 100 nm, nanofabricated on the surface of a silicon substrate. Thousands of unamplified genomic DNA molecules of 100’s kbps to several Mbps can be isolated and linearly streamed into the array for analysis in a parallel fashion. Fluorescently labeled sequence-specific signatures can then be identified and aligned to reference patterns at high resolution with custom software. This automated, multi-color imaging platform will enable a wide range of applications, such as accurate sequencing assembly, discovering genome structural variations, and uncovering epigenomic content. Nanochannel arrays promise to substantially lower the barriers of entry for single-molecule DNA analysis for scientists and clinicians, greatly impacting the advancement of molecular diagnostics, personalized medicine, and biomedical research.
Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of 1000Å GaNAs films grown on (100) oriented GaAs substrate by radio frequency (RF) plasma assisted solid-source molecular beam epitaxy was studied by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD). Samples with nitrogen content of 13 and 2.2% have shown an overall blueshift in energy of 67.7meV and an intermediate redshift of 42.2meV in the PL spectra when subjected to RTA at 525–850°C for 10min. It is also shown that the sample, which is annealed at temperature range of 700–750°C, has the highest photoluminescence efficiency (1.7–2.1 times increase in integrated PL intensity as compared to the as-grown sample). Reciprocal space mapping of the as-grown GaNAs samples obtained by using triple-crystal HRXRD shows the presence of interstitially incorporated of N atoms with no lattice relaxation in the direction parallel to the growth surface. These results have significant implication on the growth and post-growth treatment of nitride compound semiconductor materials for high performance optoelectronics devices.
CoSi2 epitaxial layers with thickness ranging from 24 nm to 170 nm have been grown onto porous Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The X-ray rocking curves and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to examine the strain relaxation and interface quality. Backscattering with channeling is used to characterize the crystallinity of the epilayers. The results show that it is necessary to grow a thin buffer Si layer in order to improve the interfacial sharpness and crystallinity of the epilayers; near perfect crystallinity is then obtained as the thickness of the CoSi2 films exceed 50 nm. TEM results reveal that both CoSi2/Si and CoSi2/porous-Si interfaces are flat and layer thickness is uniform. It is found by TEM that the dislocation density of CoSi2 grown on porous Si is much lower than that on single-crystal Si. For thin CoSi2 grown on porous Si, the TEM and strain measurement results imply that part of the film is pseudomorphic where no dislocations are observed. Average strains of CoSi2 films grown on porous Si substrates with thicknesses greater than 30 nm show a lower strains comparing to that on crystalline Si. This suggests that by using porous Si as substrates the stress energy in the epilayer can be accommodated by the Si buffer layer that bridged over the trenches of porous Si.
A pilot production Zone-melting Recrystallization system was designed and built with a capability to handle 25 wafer batches of 4“, 5“and 6“wafers. The design addresses several production requirements including high throughput, batch processing and automation. Measurements on product wafers indicate that material quality was not sacrificed to achieve production throughput levels. Exceptional structural quality and good electrical properties have been obtained on SOI wafers produced within this system. Specifically, defect densities as low as 5 X 104 /cm2 a level an order of magnitude lower than previously reported, have been achieved while the minority carrier lifetime of up to 30 microseconds, intrinsic dopant level < 2 X 1015 /cm3 and junction leakage below 1 X 1016 amperes/cm2 are either as good as or better than previously reported values. We believe that defect free ZMR material will become a reality.
The growth of high-quality single crystal GaAs on Si wafers up to six inches in diameter by organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) is reported. These wafers have specular surfaces, excellent thickness uniformity, and are shown to have properties comparable to those of smaller diameter GaAs on Si wafers. The mechanical and electrical properties of the six inch GaAs on Si wafers are shown to be suitable for GaAs device fabrication.
InxGa11-xAs-GaAsl-yPy strained layer superlattice buffer layers have been used to reduce threading dislocations in GaAs grown on Si substrates. However, for an initially high density of dislocations, the strained layer superlattice is not an effective filtering system. Consequently, the emergence of dislocations from the SLS propagate upwards into the GaAs epilayer. However, by employing thermal annealing or rapid thermal annealing, the number of dislocation impinging on the SLS can be significantly reduced. Indeed, this treatment greatly enhances the efficiency and usefulness of the SLS in reducing the number of threading dislocations.