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The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
There has recently been growing interest in various atomic and nuclear techniques for the measurement of elements in the body. This has arisen through the realisation that (a) clinically-important amounts of toxic elements can be absorbed as a result of low-level environmental exposure, and (b) important information about the nutritional status of a patient can be obtained from measurements of major body elements. Where such information can be obtained by taking samples, a very wide range of analytical techniques is available, some capable of a sensitivity measured in parts-per-billion. Sampling is not possible, however, when the whole-body content (e.g. of nitrogen) is required, and is clinically undesirable when the element in question is concentrated in particular organs, for example as lead accumulates in the bones, and cadmium and many other toxic elements accumulate in the kidneys. It is in such cases that the various in vivo techniques are particularly important.
The treatment gap between the number of people with mental disorders and the number treated represents a major public health challenge. We examine this gap by socio-economic status (SES; indicated by family income and respondent education) and service sector in a cross-national analysis of community epidemiological survey data.
Data come from 16 753 respondents with 12-month DSM-IV disorders from community surveys in 25 countries in the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative. DSM-IV anxiety, mood, or substance disorders and treatment of these disorders were assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
Only 13.7% of 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI cases in lower-middle-income countries, 22.0% in upper-middle-income countries, and 36.8% in high-income countries received treatment. Highest-SES respondents were somewhat more likely to receive treatment, but this was true mostly for specialty mental health treatment, where the association was positive with education (highest treatment among respondents with the highest education and a weak association of education with treatment among other respondents) but non-monotonic with income (somewhat lower treatment rates among middle-income respondents and equivalent among those with high and low incomes).
The modest, but nonetheless stronger, an association of education than income with treatment raises questions about a financial barriers interpretation of the inverse association of SES with treatment, although future within-country analyses that consider contextual factors might document other important specifications. While beyond the scope of this report, such an expanded analysis could have important implications for designing interventions aimed at increasing mental disorder treatment among socio-economically disadvantaged people.
Grylloblatta campodeiformis campodeiformis Walker (Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae) was commonly collected during summer from trees killed by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in subalpine forests of Alberta, Canada. Gut content analysis revealed that the grylloblattids fed on subcortical invertebrates. This newly reported habitat association shows that this species is not limited to strictly alpine habitats and glacial margins, and thus may be more widespread and common than suggested by earlier reports.
Escherichia coli O157 are zoonotic bacteria for which cattle are an important reservoir. Prevalence estimates for E. coli O157 in British cattle for human consumption are over 10 years old. A new baseline is needed to inform current human health risk. The British E. coli O157 in Cattle Study (BECS) ran between September 2014 and November 2015 on 270 farms across Scotland and England & Wales. This is the first study to be conducted contemporaneously across Great Britain, thus enabling comparison between Scotland and England & Wales. Herd-level prevalence estimates for E. coli O157 did not differ significantly for Scotland (0·236, 95% CI 0·166–0·325) and England & Wales (0·213, 95% CI 0·156–0·283) (P = 0·65). The majority of isolates were verocytotoxin positive. A higher proportion of samples from Scotland were in the super-shedder category, though there was no difference between the surveys in the likelihood of a positive farm having at least one super-shedder sample. E. coli O157 continues to be common in British beef cattle, reaffirming public health policy that contact with cattle and their environments is a potential infection source.
Static (or ‘normal’) grain growth, i.e. grain boundary migration driven solely by grain boundary energy, is considered to be an important process in polar ice. Many ice-core studies report a continual increase in average grain size with depth in the upper hundreds of metres of ice sheets, while at deeper levels grain size appears to reach a steady state as a consequence of a balance between grain growth and grain-size reduction by dynamic recrystallization. The growth factor k in the normal grain growth law is important for any process where grain growth plays a role, and it is normally assumed to be a temperature-dependent material property. Here we show, using numerical simulations with the program Elle, that the factor k also incorporates the effect of the microstructure on grain growth. For example, a change in grain-size distribution from normal to log-normal in a thin section is found to correspond to an increase in k by a factor of 3.5.
The error box of the unusual Gamma-Ray Burst of March 5, 1979 falls completely inside the optical and radio image of the Supernova Remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This region was observed twice in x-rays with the High Resolution Imager of the Einstein Observatory, six weeks and nearly two years after the Gamma-Ray Burst. We show the comparison between the two observations.
Ice cliffs have been identified as a reason for higher ablation rates on debris-covered glaciers than are implied by the insulation effects of the debris. This study aims to improve our understanding of cliff backwasting, and the role of radiative fluxes in particular. An energy-balance model is forced with new data gathered in May and October 2013 on Lirung Glacier, Nepalese Himalaya. Observations show substantial variability in melt between cliffs, between locations on any cliff and between seasons. Using a high-resolution digital elevation model we calculate longwave fluxes incident to the cliff from surrounding terrain and include the effect of local shading on shortwave radiation. This is an advance over previous studies, that made simplified assumptions on cliff geometry and radiative fluxes. Measured melt rates varied between 3.25 and 8.6 cm d−1 in May and 0.18 and 1.34 cm d−1 in October. Model results reproduce the strong variability in space and time, suggesting considerable differences in radiative fluxes over one cliff. In October the model fails to reproduce stake readings, probably due to the lack of a refreezing component. Disregarding local topography can lead to overestimation of melt at the point scale by up to ∼9%.
We present an investigation of the halo dynamics of M31 using planetary nebulae velocities. We have performed on-band [OIII] and off-band continuum imaging for a 3.6 square degree area centred on M31 and follow-up spectroscopy for over 600 planetary nebulae candidates. In the future the halo mass will be measured and the mass distribution and velocity anisotropy will be constrained as a function of radius.
We present results from optical and ultraviolet analysis of nine LMC/SMC supergiants. Temperatures, mass-loss rates and CNO abundances are obtained using the non-LTE, line-blanketed model atmosphere code of Hillier & Miller (1998). In general, the derived temperatures are significantly lower than those determined from unblanketed, plane-parallel models.
We describe preliminary results from our study of multi-scale structures in Centaurus A (NGC 5128) obtained using the Chandra X-ray Observatory HRC-I observations. The high-angular resolution Chandra images reveal X-ray multi-scale structures in this object with unprecedented detail and clarity. The region surrounding the Cen A nucleus, believed to be associated with a supermassive black hole, shows structures on arcsecond scales clearly resolved from the central source.
We present results for IUE, optical and IR observations of Nova Muscae 1983, from early outburst to January 1986 obtained by the European IUE Target of Opportunity Team. A detailed description of the data will appear elsewhere (Hassall et al., 1989), but here we summarise the most important results.
The outburst lightcurve initially indicated a fast speed class for this nova, but was later characterised by a rather slow optical decline with two or more secondary outbursts with sudden doubling of the bolometric flux. In Figure 1, we show the contributions of X-ray, UV, optical and IR to the total luminosity for 1200 days following outburst, assuming a distance of 4.3kpc and an interstellar extinction E(B-V)=0.5. In the absence of dust formation, first the UV and later the X-ray flux (Ögelman et al, 1984) dominate the radiative energy late into the nebular phase. There was a plateau stage lasting about 500 days, with a bolometric luminosity of ~ 1038ergs s−1 near the Eddington limit. The secondary outbursts were thus super-Eddington. We estimate a total outburst energy (including kinetic and gravitational potential energy of the ejecta) of ~ 5·l046 ergs, corresponding to a mass of ~ 4·10−6Mº of hydrogen burnt in the thermonuclear runaway.
Whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis Engelmann (Pinaceae), a foundational species of North American subalpine ecosystems, is endangered across its range and continued decline is inevitable. Little is known about the invertebrate fauna associated with this species which, if specific to whitebark pine, may also be threatened or endangered. We compared the composition of saproxylic beetle assemblages associated with whitebark pine and co-occurring lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta latifolia (Engelmann) Critchfield (Pinaceae), recently killed by mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in subalpine forests in Alberta, Canada. Redundancy and rarefaction analyses revealed that beetle assemblage composition was influenced by snag class (i.e., time since death) but differed little among the two pine species within snag classes. However, a subset of the assemblage known to be associated with the MPB differed significantly in composition between the two pines. No common species were exclusively associated with whitebark pines; however, seven species were rarely collected only on whitebark pine. With the possible exception of these rare species, felling and burning infested whitebark pines to control the MPB will not likely endanger saproxylic beetles associated with this tree.
The transition to the diverse and complex biosphere of the Ediacaran and early Paleozoic is the culmination of a complex history of tectonic, climate, and geochemical development. Although much of this rise occurred in the middle and late intervals of the Neoproterozoic Era (1000–541 million years ago [Ma]), the foundation for many of these developments was laid much earlier, during the latest Mesoproterozic Stenian Period (1200–1000 Ma) and early Neoproterozoic Tonian Period (1000–720 Ma). Concurrent with the development of complex ecosystems, changes in the composition, configuration, and tectonic interaction between continental plates have been proposed as major shapers of both climate and biogeochemical cycling, but there is little support in the geologic record for overriding tectonic controls. Biogeochemical evidence, however, suggests that an expansion of marine oxygen concentrations may have stabilized nutrient cycles and created more stable environmental conditions under which complex, eukaryotic life could gain a foothold and flourish. The interaction of tectonic, biogeochemical, and climate processes, as described in this paper, resulted in the establishment of habitable environments that fostered the Ediacaran and early Phanerozoic radiations of animal life and the emergence of complex, modern-style ecosystems.
Background: For adolescents with epilepsy, there is often a poor system in place to meet their individualized transition needs. Our objectives were 1) to develop epilepsy-specific transition care management plans (TCMPs) to ensure access, and attachment to adult healthcare providers, and 2) to identify strategies for providing support during the transition period, including through the development of physician and patient (or caregiver) navigated web-based tools, resources and recommendations for health system improvements. Methods: Physicians and nurses with expertise in areas including adult and pediatric epilepsy, family medicine, psychiatry, and varied allied health professionals were engaged to generate epilepsy-related TCMPs. Results: Through an iterative process spanning the course of over a year, TCMPs were developed to cover areas including: treatment responsive and resistant epilepsy, ketogenic diet, epilepsy surgery, women’s issues, mental health, and psychosocial aspects of epilepsy. The TCMPs referenced established guidelines and best practices in the literature wherever possible. Caregiver roles and responsibilities were outlined, remaining cognoscent of available provincial resources. Conclusions: Epilepsy specific TCMPs can be developed through a collaborative approach between pediatric and adult healthcare providers, easing the patient experience, creating educated accountability, and providing a forum to identify and address gaps of care in adolescents with epilepsy.