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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
The two-dimensional unitary space, U2, is a complex vector space of points (x, y) = (x1 + ix2, y1 + iy2), for which the distance between (x, y) and (x', y') is defined by . A unitary transformation is a linear transformation which preserves distance. A line is the set of points (x, y) satisfying some complex equation ax + by = c. A unitary transformation is a (unitary) reflection if it is of finite period n > 1 and leaves a line pointwise invariant. Thus à unitary matrix represents a reflection if its two characteristic roots are 1 and a complex nth root (n > 1) of 1.
Shephard and Todd (5) give generators for the finite primitive irreducible groups generated by two unitary reflections in U2. It is the purpose of the present paper to give generating reflections, and defining relations in terms of these reflections, for the seven such groups requiring three generating reflections, that is, for their nos. 7, 11, 12, 13, 15, 19, 22. The reflections are chosen whenever possible so that their product has the property suggested by Theorem 5.4 of (5). That is, except for no. 15, the period of the product of the three generating reflections is h = m2 + 1, and the characteristic roots of this product are 2πim1/h and 2πim2/h, where m1 and m2 are the “exponents“ (5, p. 282) of the group. The reason for the impossibility of such a choice for no. 15 is given in § 4. In § 5 the homomorphisms between these groups and certain groups of motions in elliptic 3-space are determined.
In 2006, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) Vascular Cognitive Impairment Harmonization Standards recommended a 5-Minute Protocol as a brief screening instrument for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). We report demographically adjusted norms for the 5-Minute Protocol and its relation to other measures of cognitive function and cerebrovascular risk factors. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 7199 stroke-free adults in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study on the NINDS-CSN 5-Minute Protocol score. Total scores on the 5-Minute Protocol were inversely correlated with age and positively correlated with years of education, and performance on the Six-Item Screener, Word List Learning, and Animal Fluency (all p-values <.001). Higher cerebrovascular risk on the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) was associated with lower total 5-Minute Protocol scores (p <.001). The 5-Minute Protocol also differentiated between participants with and without confirmed stroke and with and without stroke symptom histories (p <.001). The NINDS-CSN 5-Minute Protocol is a brief, easily administered screening measure that is sensitive to cerebrovascular risk and offers a valid method of screening for cognitive impairment in populations at risk for VCI. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–12)
Rates of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have varied substantially, depending on the criteria used and the samples surveyed. The present investigation used a psychometric algorithm for identifying MCI and its stability to determine if low cognitive functioning was related to poorer longitudinal outcomes. The Advanced Cognitive Training of Independent and Vital Elders (ACTIVE) study is a multi-site longitudinal investigation of long-term effects of cognitive training with older adults. ACTIVE exclusion criteria eliminated participants at highest risk for dementia (i.e., Mini-Mental State Examination < 23). Using composite normative for sample- and training-corrected psychometric data, 8.07% of the sample had amnestic impairment, while 25.09% had a non-amnestic impairment at baseline. Poorer baseline functional scores were observed in those with impairment at the first visit, including a higher rate of attrition, depressive symptoms, and self-reported physical functioning. Participants were then classified based upon the stability of their classification. Those who were stably impaired over the 5-year interval had the worst functional outcomes (e.g., Instrumental Activities of Daily Living performance), and inconsistency in classification over time also appeared to be associated increased risk. These findings suggest that there is prognostic value in assessing and tracking cognition to assist in identifying the critical baseline features associated with poorer outcomes. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1–15)
Systematic cognitive training produces long-term improvement in cognitive function and less difficulty in performing activities of daily living. We examined whether cognitive training was associated with reduced rate of incident dementia. Participants were from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study (n = 2,802). Incident dementia was defined using a combination of interview- and performance-based methods. Survival analysis was used to determine if ACTIVE treatment affected the rate of incident dementia during 5 years of follow-up. A total of 189 participants met criteria for incident dementia. Baseline factors predictive of incident dementia were older age, male gender, African American race, fewer years of education, relationship other than married, no alcohol use, worse MMSE, worse SF-36 physical functioning, higher depressive symptomatology, diabetes, and stroke (all p < .05). A multivariable model with significant predictors of incident dementia and training group revealed that cognitive training was not associated with a lower rate of incident dementia. Cognitive training did not affect rates of incident dementia after 5 years of follow-up. Longer follow-up or enhanced training may be needed to fully explore the preventive capacity of cognitive training in forestalling onset of dementia. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1–9)
High quality bulk YBa2CuOx−7 was synthesized by fusing stoichiometric amounts of yttrium and copper nitrates and barium hydroxide, in air, using an ordinary Bunsen burner. The starting materials go through a short-lived liquid phase yielding a solid black product which was subsequently heat treated, (900 C, 18–24 h, in air, followed by 500 C, 5 h., in O2). These materials were greater than 99% phase pure with CuO as the only other phase and they exhibited a transition temperature of 92 K, a 15.5% perfect diamagnetic response (field cooled), 76% (zero field cooled). This synthesis represents an improvement over the much more labor and time intensive conventional methods in that it allows high quality materials of various compositions to be prepared quickly
Solutions of Y, Ba and Cu nitrate were spray-frozen. Very small particles consisting of atomic mixtures of these salts remained after the water was sublimed. These YBCO precursors were characterized and their behavior was studied in detail while they were thermally decomposed by a variety of techniques. Kilogram size batches are routine. The final YBCO products were obtained as powders and sintered bars. Sintered materials exhibited excellent phase purity (>99%) and super-conducting characteristics (Tc = 92 K), while powdered materials had secondary phases present. Some of these samples having high percentages of second phases exhibited sudden drops in resistivity to a few micro-ohms at 200 or 240 K followed by a zero resistance transition at 92 K. Coincident with this drop in resistance was a discontinuity in the magnetization.
GaAs Schottky barrier diodes remain a workhorse technology for submillimeter-wave applications including radio astronomy, chemical spectroscopy, atmospheric studies, plasma diagnostics and compact range radar. This is because of the inherent speed of these devices and their ability to operate at room temperature. Although planar (flip-chip and beam-lead) diodes are replacing whisker contacted diodes throughout this frequency range, the handling and placement of such small GaAs chips limits performance and greatly increases component costs. Through the use of a novel wafer bonding process we have fabricated and tested submillimeter-wave components where the GaAs diode is integrated on a quartz substrate along with other circuit elements such as filters, probes and bias lines. This not only eliminates the cost of handling microscopically small chips, but also improves circuit performance. This is because the parasitic capacitance is reduced by the elimination of the GaAs substrate and the electrical embedding impedance seen by the diodes is more precisely controlled. Our wafer bonding process has been demonstrated through the fabrication and testing of a fundamental mixer at 585 GHz (Tmix < 1200K) and a 380 GHz subharmonically pumped mixer (Tmix < 1000K). This paper reviews the wafer bonding process and discusses how it can be used to greatly improve the performance and manufacturability of submillimeter-wave components.
This paper postulates that cultural entities with long term structural integrity are characterized by symmetrical relationships between and among the constituent sectors of society. We demonstrate how such social relationships are embedded in the symmetrical arrangements of motifs in geometric design. We test this premise with an analysis of 1000 years of ceramic design from the northern American Southwest, AD 600-1600, with a description of the continuities and changes in the plane pattern symmetries that structure design. Two major points of change in symmetry use at c. AD 900 and AD 1300 correlate with changes in settlement type from pithouses to unit pueblos and from unit pueblos to multi-storied plaza oriented pueblos that accompanied adjustments to changes in environmental conditions. We propose that in the American Southwest the predominant use of bifold symmetry is a structural metaphor for the reciprocal social relationships basic to the organization of small puebloan agricultural communities and that the changes in these symmetries reflect the changing integration of the household into an increasingly complex social system. This interpretation of the meaning of design structure is derived from cosmological principles embedded in 20th century ritual songs of the Hopi, descendents of the prehistoric puebloans, as well as depicted in images in their 15th century kiva wall murals. We present this interpretation of the sequence of pueblo development in the American Southwest in terms of the changing symmetrical nature of the social relationships that integrated the agricultural communities as an example of the insights possible with this new approach to design analysis.
The Brown Mussel (Perna perna) is an important fooditem for coastal people in the Republic of Transkei, providing some 16% of their annual protein requirements in 1978, though the energy benefit associated with the consumption of Mussels is relatively low. Uncontrolled heavy exploitation of the stocks of these Mussels resulted in reductions in both their density and size between 1978 and 1984. The reduced availability of Mussels to collectors led to increased exploitation-pressure on other, longer-lived, intertidal species: the proportion of limpets in the take of collectors rose from 7% in 1978 to 37% in 1984, while the proportion of Brown Mussels decreased from 92% to 57%.
The challenges facing natural resource managers occur over entire landscapes and involve landscape components at many scales. Many resource managers are shifting their approach from managing resources such as fish, wildlife, and water separately to managing for the integrity of entire ecosystems (Christensen et al., 1996). Indeed, nearly all resource management agencies in the USA have recognized that informed management decisions cannot be made exclusively at the level of habitat units or local sites. It is generally accepted that ecological patterns and processes must be considered over large areas when biodiversity and ecological function must be maintained while the goods and services desired by the public are provided. For example, forest managers must determine the patterns and timing of tree harvesting while maintaining an amount and arrangement of habitats that will sustain many species. Managers of parks and nature reserves must be attentive to actions occurring on surrounding lands outside their jurisdiction. Aquatic resource managers must broaden their perspective to encompass the terrestrial and human landscape to manage stream and lake resources effectively (Hynes, 1975, widely regarded as the father of modern stream ecology and quoted above; Naiman et al., 1995). Landscape ecology also is implicit in the paradigm of ecosystem management (Grumbine,1994; Christensen et al., 1996).
Despite the acknowledged importance of a landscape perspective by both scientists and resource managers, determining how to implement management at broader scales is very much a work in progress.
The effect of recombinant bovine FSH (rbFSH) administration on serum FSH and follicular growth was determined in 16 GnRH-immunized heifers (primary day 0 and booster day 28 using 0·4 mg human serum albumin (HSA) – Cys-Gly-GnRH in DEAE-dextran). All heifers produced GnRH antibody titres (mean 58·8 (s.e. 2·8)% binding at 1: 640 serum dilution on day 42), follicular growth ceased (follicles ≤ 4 mm) between days 33 and 49, progesterone concentrations were ≤ 0·5 ng/ml in all heifers by day 53, and pulsatile LH secretion was markedly reduced (v. luteal phase control heifers) on day 63. Heifers were blocked by antibody titre and LH concentrations on day 63 and assigned (no. = five or six per treatment) on day 78 to: (1) control (saline given i.m. four times per day for 4 days), (2) 0·5 mg equivalent (USDA bFSH BP 1) of rbFSH (Granada Biosciences, TX) given i.m. four times per day for 6 days (12 mg in total) or 3) 1·5 mg rbFSH given i.m. four times per day for 4 days (24 mg in total). Ovaries of heifers were examined by ultrasound and blood samples were collected at 3- to 6-h intervals from days –1 to 10 and then twice a day until follicles ≥ 5 mm were no longer detectable. The increase in serum FSH concentrations was different (P < 0·05) between treatments (mean peak FSH above pre-treatment baseline concentrations at 102 h after first rbFSH were 1·4 (s.e. 0·8), 14·5 (s.e. 3·3) and 33·6 (s.e. 5·3) ng/ml for treatments 1 to 3, respectively). The rate of decline in FSH from 102 to 302 h was not different between treatments 2 and 3. There was no detectable follicular growth in heifers given saline injections. Following either rbFSH treatment, medium (MF; 5 to 9 mm) and large (LF; ≥ 10 mm) follicles grew. For heifers in treatments 2 and 3, there was no difference in the interval from start of rbFSH until the first appearance of MF (4·2 (s.e. 0·7) v. 3·3 (s.e. 0·3) days) or LF (5·3 (s.e. 0·3) v. 4·8 (s.e. 0·8) days) or in the duration of the presence of MF and/or LF (13·2 (s.e. 4·5) v. 16·6 (s.e. 2·6) days). Increasing dose of rbFSH increased (P < 0·05) the mean maximum number of MF (4·3 (s.e. 1·1) and 9·2 (s.e.0·9) for treatments 2 and 3) and LF (2·0 (s.e. 1·1) and 8·4 (s.e. 1·2)). In summary, low doses of rbFSH induced a small cohort of follicles to grow and develop without selection or development of a single dominant follicle, whereas high doses of rbFSH resulted in large numbers of both MF and LF.
The objective was to determine the daily live-weight gain, behaviour, adrenal and immune responses of finishing beef heifers housed at two different space allowances. Heifers (no. = 32) with a mean live weight of466 (s.e. 3·6) kg were assigned to either 1·5 or 3·0 m2 average individual space allowance in four slatted-floor pens (two per treatment) for a period of 104 days. On days 5, 40, 68 and 96, heifers (no. = eight per treatment, four per pen) were challenged with 1·98 i.u. ACTH per kg M0·75, and serial blood samples were analysed for plasma cortisol concentrations. The other 16 heifers were immunized against keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) on day 28, and blood samples collected on days 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 were analysed for anti-KLH immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations. All heifers were blood sampled on days 0, 14, 56 and 98, and red and white blood cell numbers, packed cell volume (PCV) and plasma concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and urea were determined. Behavioural observations were conducted on days 8, 43, 71 and 99 by scan sampling for 24 h (10-min intervals), and continuous 4-h observations were conducted on days 100 and 101.
Heifers at 1·5 m2 space allowance had a lower daily live-weight gain compared with those at 3·0 m2 (0·60 v. 0·87 (s.e. 0·04) kg; P < 0·001). Heifers at 1·5 m2 had lower pre-ACTH baseline cortisol concentrations (P < 0·05) and lower post-ACTH peak cortisol concentrations (P < 0·05). There were no effects of treatment on serum anti-KLH IgG1 or IgG2 responses (P > 0·05). Heifers at 1·5 m2 had lower plasma NEFA concentrations (P < 0·05). Red and white blood cell numbers, PCV, CK and urea were not affected by treatment (P > 0·05). The time spent lying down was lower for heifers at 1·5 m2 (10·0 v. 21·1 h/day; P < 0·05). Social interactions were fewer (P < 0·05), and incidence of head-resting behaviour was higher (P < 0·05) among heifers at 1·5 m2 compared with 3·0 m2 space allowance. In conclusion, the restricted space allowance resulted in a substantial decrease in daily live-weight gain, and changes in adrenal response and behaviour.
Fine wool in China is characterized by severe dust contamination and substantial tip weathering. In an attempt to improve wool quality, synthetic rugs were fitted to ewes and a range of raw wool characteristics was monitored. Two trials were carried out in successive years: a pilot trial (June 1985 to June 1986) involving 100 ewes wearing rugs and 75 controls, and a main trial (June 1986 to June 1987) involving 250 ewes with rugs and 250 controls. The rugs were fitted to ewes after shearing and remained on until shearing the following year. Wool from ewes with rugs was significantly better in almost all the characteristics measured (P <0·05) than wool from sheep without rugs. Clean fleece weight was improved by 15% over the two trials, yield and wax content were increased, and dust content and dust penetration were substantially reduced. Staple length and strength were increased, and dust content and dust penetration were substantially reduced in the main trial. Several style characteristics were measured using a prototype image analysis system and these also showed wool from sheep wearing rugs as being of better quality than wool from sheep in the control group. The only negative result was an increase in yellowness, in the greasy state only, due to the higher wax content in the sheep wearing rugs and the yellow nature of the wax of Gansu Alpine Finewool sheep – probably due to their genetic background. Wool from sheep wearing rugs would be expected to perform better in processing than wool from unrugged sheep.
A recombinant baculovirus-expressed hybrid protein containing epitopes for the C-terminal fragment of the Plasmodium falciparum precursor to the major merozoite surface antigens (PMMSA) and the tetrapeptide repeats of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) was assessed for its immunogenicity. Murine MHC-II restriction of the antibody response to the CSP repeats was not overcome by the PMMSA component, the response to which showed no restriction. In an adjuvant trial the highest antibody titres in rabbits to both components of the hybrid were obtained using Freund's adjuvant. Lack of a boosting antibody response to the CSP repeats appeared to be linked to the conformation of the PMMSA component. Formulation of the hybrid protein into Iscoms gave antibody titres of only short duration to both components.