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The response of soil microbial communities to soil quality changes is a sensitive indicator of soil ecosystem health. The current work investigated soil microbial communities under different fertilization treatments in a 31-year experiment using the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profile method. The experiment consisted of five fertilization treatments: without fertilizer input (CK), chemical fertilizer alone (MF), rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw residue and chemical fertilizer (RF), low manure rate and chemical fertilizer (LOM), and high manure rate and chemical fertilizer (HOM). Soil samples were collected from the plough layer and results indicated that the content of PLFAs were increased in all fertilization treatments compared with the control. The iC15:0 fatty acids increased significantly in MF treatment but decreased in RF, LOM and HOM, while aC15:0 fatty acids increased in these three treatments. Principal component (PC) analysis was conducted to determine factors defining soil microbial community structure using the 21 PLFAs detected in all treatments: the first and second PCs explained 89.8% of the total variance. All unsaturated and cyclopropyl PLFAs except C12:0 and C15:0 were highly weighted on the first PC. The first and second PC also explained 87.1% of the total variance among all fertilization treatments. There was no difference in the first and second PC between RF and HOM treatments. The results indicated that long-term combined application of straw residue or organic manure with chemical fertilizer practices improved soil microbial community structure more than the mineral fertilizer treatment in double-cropped paddy fields in Southern China.
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animals is capable of sensing various kinds of nutrients via G-protein coupled receptor-mediated signaling transduction pathways, and the process is known as ‘gut nutrient chemosensing’. GPR40, GPR41, GPR43 and GPR119 are chemoreceptors for free fatty acids (FFAs) and lipid derivatives, but they are not well studied in small ruminants. The objective of this study is to determine the expression of GPR40, GPR41, GPR43 and GPR119 along the GIT of kid goats under supplemental feeding (S) v. grazing (G) during early development. In total, 44 kid goats (initial weight 1.35±0.12 kg) were slaughtered for sampling (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) between days 0 and 70. The expression of GPR41 and GPR43 were measured at both mRNA and protein levels, whereas GPR40 and GPR119 were assayed at protein level only. The effects of age and feeding system on their expression were variable depending upon GIT segments, chemoreceptors and expression level (mRNA or protein), and sometimes feeding system × age interactions (P<0.05) were observed. Supplemental feeding enhanced expression of GPR40, GPR41 and GPR43 in most segments of the GIT of goats, whereas G enhanced expression of GPR119. GPR41 and GPR43 were mainly expressed in rumen, abomasum and cecum, with different responses to age and feeding system. GPR41 and GPR43 expression in abomasum at mRNA level was greatly (P<0.01) affected by both age and feeding system; whereas their expression in rumen and abomasum at protein level were different, feeding system greatly (P<0.05) affected GPR41 expression, but had no effect (P>0.05) on GPR43 expression; and there were no feeding system×age interactions (P>0.05) on GPR41 and GPR43 protein expression. The expression of GPR41 and GPR43 in rumen and abomasum linearly (P<0.01) increased with increasing age (from days 0 to 70). Meanwhile, age was the main factor affecting GPR40 expression throughout the GIT. These outcomes indicate that age and feeding system are the two factors affecting chemoreceptors for FFAs and lipid derivatives expression in the GIT of kids goats, and S enhanced the expression of chemoreceptors for FFAs, whereas G gave rise to greater expression of chemoreceptors for lipid derivatives. Our results suggest that enhanced expression of chemoreceptors for FFAs might be one of the benefits of early supplemental feeding offered to young ruminants during early development.
Introduction: Accurate identification of children with a concussion by emergency department (ED) physicians is important to initiate appropriate anticipatory guidance and management. In children meeting international criteria for concussion, we aimed to determine the proportion who were provided this diagnosis by the ED physician and which variables were associated with a physician-diagnosed concussion. We also compared persistent symptoms in concussion cases versus those with alternative diagnoses. Methods: This was a planned secondary analysis of a prospective, multicenter cohort study. Participants were children aged 5 through 17 years and met Zurich/Berlin International Consensus Statement criteria for concussion. The primary outcome was the proportion of study participants who were assigned a diagnosis of concussion by the treating ED physician. Based on available evidence, between 50% and 90% of children meeting international concussion criteria are also diagnosed by an ED physician as having a concussion. Assuming a worst case scenario that 50% of physicians would diagnose concussion, our anticipated study sample size of 2946 would be accompanied by a +2% margin of error at the 95% confidence level for the primary outcome. Results: Among the 2946 eligible children, 2340 [79.4% (95% CI 78.0, 80.8)] were diagnosed with a concussion by an ED physician. Twelve variables were associated with this ED diagnosis, five of which had an odds ratio (OR) > 1.5: older age (13-17 vs 5-7 years, OR=2.9), longer time to presentation (>16 vs. <16 hours, OR=2.1), nausea (OR=1.7), sport mechanism (OR=1.7), and amnesia (OR=1.6). In those with physician-diagnosed concussion versus no concussion, the frequency of persistent symptoms was 62.5% vs. 38.8% (p<0.0001) at one week, 46.3% vs. 25.8% (p<0.0001) at two weeks and 33.0% vs. 23.0% (p<0.0001) at four weeks. Conclusion: Most children meeting international criteria for concussion were provided this diagnosis by the ED physician. There were five variables which increased the odds of this diagnosis by at least 1.5-fold. Relative to international criteria, the more selective assignment of concussion by ED physicians was associated with a greater frequency of persistent concussion symptoms. Nevertheless, many patients with alternative diagnoses exhibited persistent concussive symptoms at all time points. Clinicians should therefore weigh the benefits and risks of strictly applying the Zurich/Berlin international criteria versus individual discretion.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
Placental transport of vitamin D and other nutrients (e.g. amino acids, fats and glucose) to the fetus is sensitive to maternal and fetal nutritional cues. We studied the effect of maternal calorific restriction on fetal vitamin D status and the placental expression of genes for nutrient transport [aromatic T-type amino acid transporter-1 (TAT-1); triglyceride hydrolase/lipoprotein uptake facilitator lipoprotein lipase (LPL)] and vitamin D homeostasis [CYP27B1; vitamin D receptor (VDR)], and their association with markers of fetal cardiovascular function and skeletal muscle growth. Pregnant sheep received 100% total metabolizable energy (ME) requirements (control), 40% total ME requirements peri-implantation [PI40, 1–31 days of gestation (dGA)] or 50% total ME requirements in late gestation (L, 104–127 dGA). Fetal, but not maternal, plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) concentration was lower in PI40 and L maternal undernutrition groups (P<0.01) compared with the control group at 0.86 gestation. PI40 group placental CYP27B1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were increased (P<0.05) compared with the control group. Across all groups, higher fetal plasma 25OHD concentration was associated with higher skeletal muscle myofibre and capillary density (P<0.05). In the placenta, higher VDR mRNA levels were associated with higher TAT-1 (P<0.05) and LPL (P<0.01) mRNA levels. In the PI40 maternal undernutrition group only, reduced fetal plasma 25OHD concentration may be mediated in part by altered placental CYP27B1. The association between placental mRNA levels of VDR and nutrient transport genes suggests a way in which the placenta may integrate nutritional cues in the face of maternal dietary challenges and alter fetal physiology.
We present a scheme of electron beam radiography to dynamically diagnose the high energy density (HED) matter in three orthogonal directions simultaneously based on electron Linear Accelerator. The dynamic target information such as, its profile and density could be obtained through imaging the scattered electron beam passing through the target. Using an electron bunch train with flexible time structure, a very high temporal evolution could be achieved. In this proposed scheme, it is possible to obtain 1010 frames/second in one experimental event, and the temporal resolution can go up to 1 ps, spatial resolution to 1 µm. Successful demonstration of this concept will have a major impact for both future inertial confinement fusion science and HED physics research.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal protein or energy restriction on hormonal and metabolic status of pregnant goats during late gestation and their postnatal male kids. Forty-five pregnant goats were fed a control (CON), 40% protein-restricted (PR) or 40% energy-restricted (ER) diet from 90 days of gestation until parturition. Plasma of mothers (90, 125 and 145 days of gestation) and kids (6 weeks of age) were sampled to determine metabolites and hormones. Glucose concentration for pregnant goats subjected to PR or ER was less (P<0.001) than that of CON goats at 125 and 145 days of gestation. However, plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration was greater (P<0.01) at 125 and 145 days for PR and ER than CON. Protein restriction increased (P<0.01) maternal cortisol concentration by 145 days of gestation, and ER decreased (P<0.01) maternal insulin concentration at 125 days of gestation. Moreover, maternal amino acid (AA) concentrations were affected by nutritional restriction, with greater (P<0.05) total AA (TAA) and nonessential AA (NEAA) for PR goats but less (P<0.05) TAA and NEAA for ER goats at 125 days of gestation. After 6 weeks of nutritional recovery, plasma concentrations of most metabolic and hormonal parameters in restricted kids were similar to CON kids, except for reduced (P<0.05) insulin concentration in ER, and reduced (P<0.05) Asp concentration in PR and ER kids. These results provide information on potential metabolic mechanisms responsible for fetal programming.
Batch cultures of mixed rumen micro-organisms were used to evaluate varying enzyme products with high xylanase activity (EPX), four of which were recombinant single xylanase activity developmental enzyme products (EPX1–EPX4, products of xylanase genes derived from Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma reesei, Orpinomyces and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively), for their potential to improve in vitro ruminal fermentation of three forages [maize (Zea mays) stover (MS), rice (Oryza sativa) straw (RS) and Guimu No. 1 grass (Pennisetum americanum×Pennisetum purpureum, GM)]. The enzyme product EPX5, derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum, was used as a positive control that could improve in vitro fermentation of forages. Enzymes were supplied at dose rates of 0 (control), 20 (low), 50 (medium) and 80 (high) enzymic units of xylanase/g of dry matter (DM). There were no interactions between EPX and dose for the fermentation characteristics evaluated. Increasing EPX dose linearly increased gas production (GP) kinetic characters [i.e. asymptotic GP (VF), half time when GP is half of the theoretical maximum GP (t0·5), and initial fractional rate of degradation (FRD0)] and methane (CH4) production from RS and GM at 24 h, and increased degradability of DM at 24 h for MS and RS. A linear increase in degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) of the three forages at 24 h was observed with increasing dose of EPX, but at 48 h only NDF degradability of RS was increased. There were differences in the effects of EPX on degradability of DM and NDF from RS at 24 h, with EPX4 having the highest and EPX1 having the lowest. In addition, increasing EPX dose linearly increased acetate proportion at 24 h and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) at 48 h in MS. Increasing EPX dose linearly increased TVFA at 24 h, and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration at 48 h in RS. For GM, linear or quadratic effects of dose on acetate and butyrate concentration were observed at 24 and 48 h. The present study indicates that applying EPX to low-quality forages has the potential to improve rumen degradability and utilization. Furthermore, EPX from different sources differed in their effects when applied at the same dose rate, with the responses being forage-specific. For RS, the EPX derived from A. oryzae showed the greatest positive effects on forage degradation; whereas for MS and GM, the source of micro-organism where EPX gene was derived did not affect the degradation, with little difference among the EPX evaluated.
This study aimed to investigate the validity and feasibility of cervical oesophagostomy as a treatment for patients with severe dysphagia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
The study retrospectively analysed the clinical data, symptoms, physical signs, treatment and outcomes of 12 patients treated with cervical oesophagostomy for severe dysphagia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, from 2006 to 2010.
In all 12 cases, the oesophageal stoma remained stable, without any complications such as pharyngeal fistula or inflammation. No oesophageal stricture or granuloma growth was observed. All patients reported significant improvement in their nutritional status and quality of life after the oesophagostomy surgery.
Cervical oesophagostomy is a valid and feasible method of treating severe dysphagia following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Oesophagostomy shows specific advantages over nasogastric tubing, gastrostomy and jejunostomy. Patients' nutrition and quality of life can be improved significantly if cervical oesophagostomy is executed in a timely fashion, especially in cases with severe trismus and multiple radiation-induced cranial nerve palsies unresponsive to rehabilitation.
The double side approach method combines the method of weighted residuals (MWR) with mathematical programming to solve the differential equations. Once the differential equation is proved to satisfy the maximum principle, collocation method and mathematical programming are used to transfer the problem into a bilateral inequality. By utilizing Genetic Algorithms optimization method, the maximum and minimum solutions which satisfy the inequality can be found. Adopting this method, quite less computer memory and time are needed than those required for finite element method.
In this paper, the incompressible-Newtonian, fully-developed, steady-state laminar flow in equilateral triangular, rectangular, elliptical and super-elliptical ducts is studied. Based on the maximum principle of differential equations, the monotonicity of the Laplace operator can be proved and the double side approach method can be applied. Different kinds of trial functions are constructed to meet the no-slip boundary condition, and it was demonstrated that the results are in great agreement with the analytical solutions or the formerly presented works. The efficiency, accuracy, and simplicity of the double side approach method are fully illustrated in the present study to indicate that the method is powerful for solving boundary value problems.
In recent years, human leptospirosis has been reported in Jinping and Liping counties, Guizhou province, but the leptospires have never been isolated. To track the source of infection and understand the aetiological characteristics, we performed surveillance for field mice carriage of leptospirosis in 2011. Four strains of leptospire were isolated from Apodemus agrarius. PCR confirmed the four isolates as pathogenic. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) showed that the four strains were closely related to serovar Lai strain 56601 belonging to serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae, which is consistent with the antibody detection results from local patients. Furthermore, the diversity of leptospiral isolates from different hosts and regions was demonstrated with MLVA. Our results suggest that A. agrarius may be the main carrier of Leptospira in Jinping and Liping counties, and the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar may be the epidemic serogroup of Leptospira. This will contribute to the control and prevention of leptospirosis in these localities.
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia. Its relationship with duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), a potentially malleable prognostic factor, has been less studied, with inconsistent findings being observed in the literature. Previous research investigating such a relationship was mostly cross-sectional and none of those prospective studies had a follow-up duration beyond 2 years.
A total of 93 Hong Kong Chinese aged 18 to 55 years presenting with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder were studied. DUP and pre-morbid adjustment were measured using a structured interview incorporating multiple sources of information. Psychopathological evaluation was administered at intake, after clinical stabilization of the first psychotic episode, and at 12, 24 and 36 months. Cognitive functions were measured at clinical stabilization, and at 12, 24 and 36 months.
DUP exerted differential effects on various cognitive domains, with memory deficits being the most related to DUP even when potential confounders including pre-morbid adjustment and sex were adjusted. Prolonged DUP was associated with more severe impairment in visual memory at clinical stabilization and verbal memory at 24 and 36 months. Further, patients with a long DUP were found to have worse outcomes on negative symptoms at 36 months. The effects of DUP on verbal memory remained significant even when negative symptoms were taken into consideration.
Our findings provided further supportive evidence that delayed treatment to first-episode psychosis is associated with poorer cognitive and clinical outcomes. In addition, DUP may specifically affect memory function and its adverse impact on verbal memory may only become evident at a later stage of the recovery process.
The photophysics and nonlinear absorption behaviour of a series of α, ω-dithienyl polyenes were studied in chloroform and n-octane solutions. Steady state fluorescence, fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield measurements were made. The fluorescence quantum yields were significantly lower than those of the corresponding ax,o-diphenyl polyenes. Among the dithienyl polyenes, 3,3′-substituted polyenes exhibited stronger fluorescence than those of the 2,2′-substituted. Nonlinear optical absorption experiments showed evidence of two photon absorption.
Health-care access is associated with improved control of multiple chronic diseases, but the association between health-care access and weight change is unclear. The present study aims to test the association between health-care access and weight change.
The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study is a multicentre population-based prospective study. Weight change was calculated at 3 and 13 years after CARDIA year 7 (1992–1993). Health-care access was defined as no barriers or one or more barriers to access (health insurance gap, no usual source of care, not seeking care due to expense). Intermediary variables evaluated included history of dieting and use of diet pills, meal replacements or weight-control programmes.
Four cities in the USA.
Participants were aged 18–30 years at baseline (1985–1986). Analyses include 3922 black and white men and women with relevant data from CARDIA years 7, 10 and 20 (1992–1993, 1995–1996 and 2005–2006, respectively).
Mean weight change was +2·22 kg (+4·9 lb) by 3 years and +8·48 kg (+18·7 lb) by 13 years, with no differences by health-care access. Being on a weight-reducing diet was not consistently associated with health-care access across examinations. Use of diet pills, meal replacements or organized weight-control programmes was low, and did not vary by health-care access.
Weight gain was high irrespective of health-care access. Public health and clinical approaches are needed to address weight gain.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) infection causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Eosinophilia and a Th2-type immune response are the crucial immune mechanisms for eosinophilic meningitis. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are involved in the pathogenesis of A. cantonensis. Diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) is a compound related to glycyrrhizin (GL), a triterpene glycoside extracted from liquorice root. We investigated the curative effects and probable mechanisms of therapy involving a combination of albendazole and DG in BALB/c mice infected with A. cantonensis, and compared these with therapy involving albendazole and dexamethasone. We analysed survival time, body weight, signs, eosinophil numbers, immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin-5 (IL-5), and eotaxin concentrations, numbers and Foxp3 expression of CD4+CD25+ Treg, worm recovery and histopathology. The present results demonstrated that the combination of albendazole and DG could increase survival time more efficiently and relieve neurological dysfunction; decrease weight loss, eosinophil numbers, concentrations of IgE, IL-5 and eotaxin, the number and expression of Foxp3 of CD4+CD25+ Treg; and improve worm recovery and histopathology changes in treated animals, compared with the combination of albendazole and dexamethasone. The observations presented here suggest that the albendazole and dexamethasone combination could be replaced by the combination of albendazole and DG.
In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China?
Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview.
Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD.
Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD.
Background: The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) offers information on the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and gives a profile of cognitive functioning. This study explores the effects of age, education and gender on participants' performance on eight subtests in the Chinese-Cantonese version of the CERAD-NAB.
Methods: The original English version of the CERAD-NAB was translated and content-validated into a Chinese-Cantonese version to suit the Hong Kong Chinese population. The battery was administered to 187 healthy volunteers aged 60 to 94 years. Participants were excluded if they had neurological, medical or psychiatric disorders (including dementia). Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relative contribution of the demographic variables to the scores on each subtest.
Results: The Cantonese version of CERAD-NAB was shown to have good content validity and excellent inter-rater reliability. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that performances on seven and four out of eight subtests in the CERAD-NAB were significantly influenced by education level and age, respectively. Age and education had significant effects on participants' performance on many tests. Gender also showed a significant effect on one subtest.
Conclusions: The preliminary data will serve as an initial phase for clinical interpretation of the CERAD-NAB for Cantonese-speaking Chinese elders.
A comprehensive and systematic study has been made on Sm(CobalFevCuyZrx)zmagnets to completely understand the effects of composition and processing on their magnetic properties. The homogenized Sm(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr)z magnets have a featureless microstructure. A cellular/lamellar microstructure develops after 2-3 hours of aging at 800-850°C, but the coercivity increases only after a subsequent slow cooling to 400°C. During cooling, diffusion takes place and Cu is concentrated in the 1:5 cell boundaries and Fe in the 2:17R cells. This dilutes the magnetic properties of the 1:5 phase and causes domain wall pinning/nucleation at the cell boundaries. Higher ratio z leads to larger cells as expected due to the larger amount of the 2:17 phase. For a fixed Cu content, this translates to a larger amount of Cu in the 1:5 cell boundaries, and therefore, to a higher coercivity. Magnets without Cu but with Zr have a lamellar and a cellular like microstructure. In Zr free samples, however, a larger amount of Cu is needed to form the cellular microstructure. This cellular microstructure is unstable with prolonged isothermal aging. A uniform and stable cellular/lamellar microstructure is only observed in alloys containing both Cu and Zr. A higher aging temperature Tag leads to larger cells and higher coercivity as explained above. The results of all these studies clearly show that the amount of Cu in the 1:5 cell boundaries controls both the coercivity and its temperature dependence leading to positive and negative temperature coefficients of coercivity in low and high Cu content alloys, respectively.