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Antarctica's ice shelves modulate the grounded ice flow, and weakening of ice shelves due to climate forcing will decrease their ‘buttressing’ effect, causing a response in the grounded ice. While the processes governing ice-shelf weakening are complex, uncertainties in the response of the grounded ice sheet are also difficult to assess. The Antarctic BUttressing Model Intercomparison Project (ABUMIP) compares ice-sheet model responses to decrease in buttressing by investigating the ‘end-member’ scenario of total and sustained loss of ice shelves. Although unrealistic, this scenario enables gauging the sensitivity of an ensemble of 15 ice-sheet models to a total loss of buttressing, hence exhibiting the full potential of marine ice-sheet instability. All models predict that this scenario leads to multi-metre (1–12 m) sea-level rise over 500 years from present day. West Antarctic ice sheet collapse alone leads to a 1.91–5.08 m sea-level rise due to the marine ice-sheet instability. Mass loss rates are a strong function of the sliding/friction law, with plastic laws cause a further destabilization of the Aurora and Wilkes Subglacial Basins, East Antarctica. Improvements to marine ice-sheet models have greatly reduced variability between modelled ice-sheet responses to extreme ice-shelf loss, e.g. compared to the SeaRISE assessments.
To explore tolerability, safety and treatment response of flexible doses of paliperidone ER in adult non-acute patients with schizophrenia previously unsuccessfully treated with oral antipsychotics.
International prospective 6-month open-label study. Endpoints were the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S), patient satisfaction, adverse events (AEs), extrapyramidal symptoms (Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale; ESRS) and weight change.
1812 patients were included (59.9% male, mean age 40.1±12.6 years, 75.8% paranoid schizophrenia); most were enrolled because of lack of efficacy (n=1026) or lack of tolerability (n=490) with prior antipsychotic treatment. The median mode dose of paliperidone ER was 6 mg/day. 70.7% of patients completed the 6-month study. Most frequent reasons for early discontinuation were patient choice (8.8%), lack of efficacy or adverse event (5.1% each) independent of the reason for switching. Mean total PANSS decreased significantly from 79.4±20.4 at baseline to 66.1±21.5 at endpoint (mean change -13.3±19.7; 95% confidence interval -14.2;-12.3, p< 0.0001). The percentage of patients rated mildly ill or less in CGI-S increased from 27.0% to 52.2% at endpoint, and the rate of patients with mild functional impairment increased from 15.8% to 34.9%. AEs reported in greater-than-or-equal-to 5% of patients were insomnia (9.2%) and anxiety (7.2%). Extrapyramidal symptoms in ESRS decreased significantly from 3.5±5.8 to 2.1±4.6 (p< 0.0001). Mean weight gain from baseline to endpoint was 0.3±4.8kg.
These data support results from recent randomized controlled studies that paliperidone ER is safe, well tolerated and effective in patients previously unsuccessfully treated with other oral antipsychotics.
The majority of children requiring emergency care are treated in general emergency departments (EDs) with variable levels of pediatric care expertise. The goal of the Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK) initiative is to implement the latest research in pediatric emergency medicine in general EDs to reduce clinical variation.
To determine national pediatric information needs, seeking behaviours, and preferences of health care professionals working in general EDs.
An electronic cross-sectional survey was conducted with health care professionals in 32 Canadian general EDs. Data were collected in the EDs using the iPad and in-person data collectors.
Total of 1,471 surveys were completed (57.1% response rate). Health care professionals sought information on children’s health care by talking to colleagues (n=1,208, 82.1%), visiting specific medical/health websites (n=994, 67.7%), and professional development opportunities (n=941, 64.4%). Preferred child health resources included protocols and accepted treatments for common conditions (n=969, 68%), clinical pathways and practice guidelines (n=951, 66%), and evidence-based information on new diagnoses and treatments (n=866, 61%). Additional pediatric clinical information is needed about multisystem trauma (n=693, 49%), severe head injury (n=615, 43%), and meningitis (n=559, 39%). Health care professionals preferred to receive child health information through professional development opportunities (n=1,131, 80%) and printed summaries (n=885, 63%).
By understanding health care professionals’ information seeking behaviour, information needs, and information preferences, knowledge synthesis and knowledge translation initiatives can be targeted to improve pediatric emergency care. The findings from this study will inform the following two phases of the TREKK initiative to bridge the research-practice gap in Canadian general EDs.
Among several potential animal models that can be used for adipogenic studies, Wagyu cattle is the one that presents unique molecular mechanisms underlying the deposit of substantial amounts of intramuscular fat. As such, this review is focused on current knowledge of such mechanisms related to adipose tissue deposition using Wagyu cattle as model. So abundant is the lipid accumulation in the skeletal muscles of these animals that in many cases, the muscle cross-sectional area appears more white (adipose tissue) than red (muscle fibers). This enhanced marbling accumulation is morphologically similar to that seen in numerous skeletal muscle dysfunctions, disease states and myopathies; this might indicate cross-similar mechanisms between such dysfunctions and fat deposition in Wagyu breed. Animal models can be used not only for a better understanding of fat deposition in livestock, but also as models to an increased comprehension on molecular mechanisms behind human conditions. This revision underlies some of the complex molecular processes of fat deposition in animals.
SCAR, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, is, like the IAU, a committee of ICSU, the International Council for Science. For over 30 years, SCAR has provided scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty System and made numerous recommendations on a variety of matters. In 2010, Astronomy and Astrophysics from Antarctica was recognized as one of SCAR's five Scientific Research Programs. Broadly stated, the objectives of Astronomy & Astrophysics from Antarctica are to coordinate astronomical activities in Antarctica in a way that ensures the best possible outcomes from international investment in Antarctic astronomy, and maximizes the opportunities for productive interaction with other disciplines. There are four Working Groups, dealing with site testing, Arctic astronomy, science goals, and major new facilities. Membership of the Working Groups is open to any professional working in astronomy or a related field.
Here we present the development of an array of electrical nano-biosensors in a microfluidic channel, called Nanoneedle biosensors. Then we present the proof of concept study for protein detection. A Nanoneedle biosensor is a real-time, label-free, direct electrical detection platform, which is capable of high sensitivity detection, measuring the change in ionic current and impedance modulation, due to the presence or reaction of biomolecules such as proteins or nucleic acids. We show that the sensors which have been fabricated and characterized for the protein detection. We have functionalized Nanoneedle biosensors with receptors specific to a target protein using physical adsorption for immobilization. We have used biotinylated bovine serum albumin as the receptor and sterptavidin as the target analyte. The detection of streptavidin binding to the receptor protein is also presented.
With the aid of negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP) force in conjunction with shear force and at an optimal sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration we demonstrated a switch-like functionality to elute immuno-bound beads from the surface. At an optimal flow rate and NaOH concentration, nDEP turned on results in bead detachment, whereas when nDEP is off, the beads remain attached. This platform offers the potential for performing a bead-based multiplexed immunoassay where in a single channel various regions are immobilized with a different antibody, each targeting a different antigen. As a proof of concept we demonstrated the ability of nDEP to provide this switching behavior in a singleplex assay for the interactions that were in the same order of magnitude in strength as typical antibody-antigen interactions.
We are developing the technique of spin-polarized photoelectron spectroscopy as a probe of electron correlation with the ultimate goal of resolving the Pu electronic structure controversy. Over the last several years, we have demonstrated the utility of spin polarized photoelectron spectroscopy for determining the fine details of the electronic structure in complex systems such as those shown below.
Plutonium, because of its self-irradiation by alpha decay, ages by means of lattice damage and helium in-growth. These integrated aging effects will result in microstructural and physical property changes. Because these effects would normally require decades to measure, studies are underway to asses the effects of extended aging on the physical properties of plutonium alloys by incorporating roughly 7.5 wt% of highly specific activity isotope 238Pu into the weapons-grade plutonium to accelerate the aging process. This paper presents updated results of self-irradiation effects on enriched and reference alloys measured from the immersion density, dilatometry, and mechanical tests. After nearly 90 equivalent years of aging, both the immersion density and dilatometry show that the enriched alloys at 35°C have decreased in density by ∼0.19 % and now exhibit a near linear density decrease, without void swelling. Both tensile and compression measurements show that the aging process continues to increase the strength of plutonium alloys.
Results of radiation damage in Pu and Pu1-xAmx alloys studied with magnetic susceptibility, χ(T), and resistivity are presented. Damage accumulated at low temperatures increases χ(T) for all measured alloys, with the trend generally enhanced as the lattice expands. There is a trend towards saturation observable in the damage induced magnetic susceptibility data. that is not evident in similar damage induced resistivity data taken on the same specimen. A comparison of isochronal annealing curves measured by both resistivity and magnetic susceptibility on a 4.3at% Ga stabilized δ-Pu specimen show that Stage I annealing, where interstitials begin to move, is largely transparent to the magnetic measurement. This indicates that interstitials have little impact on the damage induced increase in the magnetic susceptibility. The isochronal annealing curves of the Pu1-xAmx alloys do not show distinct annealing stages as expected for alloys. However, samples near 20% Am concentration show an unexpected increase in magnetization beginning when specimens are annealed to 35K. This behavior is also reflected in a time dependent increase in the magnetic susceptibility of damaged specimens indicative of first order kinetics. These results suggest there may be a metastable phase induced by radiation damage and annealing in Pu1-xAmx alloys.
Alongitudinal study of growth and physical fitness of twins and their parents was designed in 1985. The major aims of this Leuven Longitudinal Twin Study were to quantify the genetic and environmental determination of (1) somatic characteristics, biological maturation and physical performance characteristics during the growth process, (2) the growth and developmental patterns, and (3) the covariation in somatic and performance characteristics.
Determination of zircon ages as well as geochemical and Sm–Nd isotope systematics of granitoids in the Khetri Copper Belt of the Aravalli mountains, NW India, constrain the late Palaeoproterozoic crustal evolution of the Aravalli craton. The plutons are typical A-type within-plate granites, derived from melts generated in an extensional tectonic environment. They display REE and multi-element patterns characterized by steep LREE-enriched and almost flat HREE profiles and distinct negative anomalies for Sr, P and Ti. Initial εNd values range from −1.3 to −6.2 and correspond to crustal sources with mean crustal residence ages of 2.5 to 2.1 Ga. A lower mafic crustal anatectic origin is envisaged for these granitoids, and the heterogeneous εNd(t) values are inferred to have been acquired from the magma source region. Zircon Pb–Pb evaporation and U–Pb ages indicate widespread rift-related A-type magmatism at 1711–1660 Ma in the northern Delhi belt and also suggest a discrete older magmatic event at around 1800 Ma. The emplacement ages of the compositionally distinct A-type granitoid plutons, and virtually coeval granulite metamorphism and exhumation in another segment of the Aravalli mountains, further signify that part of the Aravalli crust evolved during a widespread extensional event in late Palaeoproterozoic time.
The E-Z Reader model assumes that the parafoveal selection for fixation and the subsequent selection for attention allocation encompass the same spatially distinct letter cluster. Recent data suggest, however, that an individual letter sequence is selected for fixation and that more than one letter sequence can be selected for attention allocation (processing).