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Silver nitrate cautery and bipolar electrocautery are commonly used in the treatment of epistaxis. Currently, there are no recommendations on optimum contact times or power for nasal cautery. ENT consultant practice in the UK has not previously been evaluated.
This study examined the burn depth associated with silver nitrate (75 per cent concentration) cautery and bipolar electrocautery on porcine septum samples, using varying contact times and power. ENT consultants completed a survey evaluating their practice.
Results and conclusion
ENT consultant practice of nasal cautery was shown to vary widely. Silver nitrate cautery with a contact time of less than 30 seconds does not cause a full thickness burn. The findings lend some support to bilateral cauterisation with silver nitrate. Bipolar electrocautery should be set at lower than 10 W and with a contact time of less than 4 seconds to reduce the risk of complications associated with a full thickness burn.
In 2017, Hurricane Maria exposed a colonial-era settlement at LaSoye on the Caribbean island of Dominica. Evidence suggests that this was a seventeenth- to eighteenth-century Dutch trading factory built over an earlier Kalinago settlement, and a place of early interaction between Indigenous peoples and Europeans.
The effects of specimen size, Hall–Petch (H-P) grain or subgrain size, particle size plus spacing, and crack size on the yield strength, plastic deformation, and fracturing properties of crystalline materials are described on a dislocation mechanics basis. The size effects are assessed at relevant macro- and/or micro-and/or nano-scale dimensions; in the latter case, at the upper-limiting strength levels. The description is applied mostly to face-centered cubic (FCC), body-centered cubic (BCC), and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) metals but also involves grain size/particle size–dependent (composite) steel material behaviors. Competition is described for the role of dislocation pile-ups versus hole-joining mechanisms for ductile failure. Grain size–dependent microhardness and strain rate sensitivity measurements are presented for nano-grain size strengthening and grain size weakening, respectively. An intrinsic size effect is demonstrated for silicon crystal nano-indentation hardness testing, which, on microscale loading, leads to evaluation of crack size dependence and, for polycrystalline alumina, to associated H-P behavior for the fracture mechanics stress intensity.
Much of the global agricultural by products go waste, especially in developing nations where much of their revenues depend on the exports of raw agricultural products. Such waste streams, if converted to “value added” products could serve as additional source of revenue while simultaneously having a positive impact on the socio-economic well being of the people. We present a preliminary investigation on utilizing chemical activation technique and ball milling to convert agricultural waste streams such as cocoa pod, coconut husk, palm midrib and calabash commonly found in Ghana into ultra-high surface area activated carbon. Such activated carbons are suitable for myriads of applications in environmental remediation, climate management, energy storage and conversion systems (batteries and supercapacitors), and improving crop productivity. We achieved BET surface area as high as ∼ 3000 m2/g.
The SkyMapper Transient survey (SMT) is exploring variability in the southern sky by performing (a) a rolling search to discover and study supernovæ, and (b) a Target of Opportunity programme that uses the robotic SkyMapper Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. The supernova survey is obtaining a non-targeted sample of Type Ia supernovæ (SNe Ia) at low redshifts, z < 0.1, and studying other interesting transients found with the search strategy. We have a Target of Opportunity programme with an automatic response mechanism to search for optical counterparts to gravitational-wave and fast radio-burst events; it benefits from SkyMapper’s large field of view of 5.7 sq. deg. and a rapid data reduction pipeline.
We present first results of the SMT survey. The SMT pipeline can process and obtain potential candidates within 12 hours of observation. It disentangles real transients from processing artefacts using a machine-learning algorithm. To date, SMT has discovered over 60 spectroscopically confirmed supernovæ, several peculiar objects, and over 40 SNe Ia including one (SNIa 2016hhd) which was found within the first few days of explosion. We have also participated in searches for optical counterparts of gravitational waves, fast radio bursts and other transients, and have published observations of the optical counterpart of the gravitational-wave event GW170817. We also participate in coordinated observations with the Deeper Wider Faster programme, and the Kepler K2 cosmology project.
Asia, a region grappling with the impacts of climate change, increasing natural disasters, and transboundary water issues, faces major challenges to water security. Water resources there are closely tied to the dramatic Hindu-Kush Himalayan (HKH) mountain range, where over 46,000 glaciers hold some of the largest repositories of fresh water on earth (Qiu 2010). Often described as the water tower of Asia, the HKH harbors the snow and ice that form the headwaters of the continent's major rivers (Bandyopadhyay 2013). Downstream, this network of river systems sustains more than 1.3 billion people who depend on these freshwater sources for their consumption and agricultural production, and increasingly as a source of hydropower (Immerzeel, Van Beek, and Bierkens 2010; National Research Council 2012; Rasul 2014).
This short essay sets the context for the special section on communities, courts and Scottish towns. Scottish burgh records generally, and Aberdeen's UNESCO recognized collection in particular, are considered in light of their legal character. The changing features of pre-modern political society between the fifteenth century and the early nineteenth century are introduced as a shared problem for investigation, and an ancien régime framework is examined as a comparative tool in this field. A vital concern of these articles is with the construction and sometimes contested use of vocabularies of law and authority, privileges and liberties, and ideas of urban ‘community’. Courts at the municipal level, and in the world beyond the burgh, are appreciated as legal and governmental fora. The ambition of this special section is to prompt European comparisons, and encourage greater dialogue with and consideration of Scottish urban records in future research.
Water is the foundation of all ecosystems, whether terrestrial or aquatic. In terrestrial ecosystems freshwater not only provides critical water supply for transpiration during plant photosynthesis and drinking water for animals, but also transports, redistributes and stores energy, nutrients and contaminants. In aquatic and snow ecosystems, water is the medium in which the ecosystem functions and so its state mediates all transactions in these systems. Ecosystems are not passive responders to water but through their structure and function can manage water and associated microclimate – forests, grasslands, organic terrain wetlands, and beaver ponds being just a few examples.
This chapter will examine the surface water budget in terms of the water continuity equation as a manifestation of the hydrological cycle. To solve the continuity equation for water, the chapter will review hydrological processes and how they interact with vegetation, animals, soils, geomorphology and climate in the context of the catchment. The coupling of the mass and energy continuity equations in controlling hydrological processes will be discussed. How hydrological processes and their ecosystem interactions are managed by humans will be introduced. Then the chapter will review calculation schemes for the surface water budget via one-dimensional land surface schemes and catchment-based hydrological models, noting the data requirements, uncertainty and limitations of these models and the balance required between model complexity and physical representation of hydrology. This will give the conceptual ideas and basic mathematics of conservation laws and transport processes that form the basis of many models in the forthcoming chapters.
Hydrological Processes as a Fundamental Component of Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems
The hydrological cycle is the flow and storage of water, as liquid, solid or vapor, on and near the Earth's surface. This cycling is a fundamental function of the Earth system and, through its associated latent energy transformations and other influences on land surface characteristics, ensures the habitability of the planet. A representation of the global hydrological cycle is found in Figure 4.1 where it can be seen that there are substantial flows between ocean and land – evaporation and river discharge from land transfer water directly to the oceans or through precipitation and ocean water is evaporated and then forms precipitation over land.
Glacier basal motion generates diurnal to multi-annual fluctuations in glacier velocity and mass flux. Understanding these fluctuations is important for prediction of future sea-level rise and for gaining insight into glacier physics and erosion. Here, we derive glacier velocity through cross-correlation of WorldView satellite imagery to document the evolution of ice surface velocity on Kennicott Glacier, Alaska, over the 2013 melt season. The summer speedup is spatially uniform over a ~12 km2 area, over which the spring velocity varies significantly. Velocity increases by 1.4-fold to tenfold across the study domain, with larger values where spring velocities are low. To investigate the cross-glacier distribution of basal motion required to explain the observed surface speedup, we employ a two-dimensional cross-sectional glacier flow model. We find the model is insensitive to the spatial distribution of basal slip because stress gradient ice coupling diffuses the surface expression of the basal velocity field. While the temporal evolution of the subglacial hydrologic system is critical for predicting a glacier's response to meltwater inputs, our work suggests that glacier and ice-sheet models do not require a detailed representation of subglacial hydrology to accurately capture the spatial pattern of glacier speedup.
The evidence underpinning the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is overwhelming. As the emphasis shifts more towards interventions and the translational strategies for disease prevention, it is important to capitalize on collaboration and knowledge sharing to maximize opportunities for discovery and replication. DOHaD meetings are facilitating this interaction. However, strategies to perpetuate focussed discussions and collaborations around and between conferences are more likely to facilitate the development of DOHaD research. For this reason, the DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand (DOHaD ANZ) has initiated themed Working Groups, which convened at the 2014–2015 conferences. This report introduces the DOHaD ANZ Working Groups and summarizes their plans and activities. One of the first Working Groups to form was the ActEarly birth cohort group, which is moving towards more translational goals. Reflecting growing emphasis on the impact of early life biodiversity – even before birth – we also have a Working Group titled Infection, inflammation and the microbiome. We have several Working Groups exploring other major non-cancerous disease outcomes over the lifespan, including Brain, behaviour and development and Obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic health. The Epigenetics and Animal Models Working Groups cut across all these areas and seeks to ensure interaction between researchers. Finally, we have a group focussed on ‘Translation, policy and communication’ which focusses on how we can best take the evidence we produce into the community to effect change. By coordinating and perpetuating DOHaD discussions in this way we aim to enhance DOHaD research in our region.
In traditional transit timing variations (TTVs) analysis of multi-planetary systems, the individual TTVs are first derived from transit fitting and later modelled using n-body dynamic simulations to constrain planetary masses. We show that fitting simultaneously the transit light curves with the system dynamics (photo-dynamical model) increases the precision of the TTV measurements and helps constrain the system architecture. We exemplify the advantages of applying this photo-dynamical model to a multi-planetary system found in K2 data very close to 3:2 mean motion resonance, K2-19. In this case the period of the larger TTV variations (libration period) is much longer (>1.5 years) than the duration of the K2 observations (80 days). However, our method allows to detect the short period TTVs produced by the orbital conjunctions between the planets that in turn permits to uniquely characterise the system. Therefore, our method can be used to constrain the masses of near-resonant systems even when the full libration curve is not observed.
Social context has a major influence on the detection and treatment of youth mental and substance use disorders in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban areas, particularly where gang culture, community violence, normalisation of drug use and repetitive maladaptive family structures prevail. This paper aims to examine how social context influences the development, identification and treatment of youth mental and substance use disorders in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban areas from the perspectives of health care workers.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health care workers (n=37) from clinical settings including: primary care, secondary care and community agencies and analysed thematically using Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory to guide analysis.
Health care workers’ engagement with young people was influenced by the multilevel ecological systems within the individual’s social context which included: the young person’s immediate environment/‘microsystem’ (e.g., family relationships), personal relationships in the ‘mesosystem’ (e.g., peer and school relationships), external factors in the young person’s local area context/‘exosystem’ (e.g., drug culture and criminality) and wider societal aspects in the ‘macrosystem’ (e.g., mental health policy, health care inequalities and stigma).
In socioeconomically disadvantaged urban areas, social context, specifically the micro-, meso-, exo-, and macro-system impact both on the young person’s experience of mental health or substance use problems and services, which endeavour to address these problems. Interventions that effectively identify and treat these problems should reflect the additional challenges posed by such settings.
Self-emission x-ray shadowgraphy provides a method to measure the ablation-front trajectory and low-mode nonuniformity of a target imploded by directly illuminating a fusion capsule with laser beams. The technique uses time-resolved images of soft x-rays (
keV) emitted from the coronal plasma of the target imaged onto an x-ray framing camera to determine the position of the ablation front. Methods used to accurately measure the ablation-front radius (
), image-to-image timing (
ps) and absolute timing (
ps) are presented. Angular averaging of the images provides an average radius measurement of
and an error in velocity of
. This technique was applied on the Omega Laser Facility [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and the National Ignition Facility [Campbell and Hogan, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41, B39 (1999)].
Streams draining the Cypress Hills support unique and understudied macroinvertebrate communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. Here, we report the discovery of a species of caddisfly new to the Cypress Hills and Saskatchewan, Neophylax splendens Denning (Trichoptera: Thremmatidae). Larvae were collected early in May 2012, and are found to enter pre-pupal diapause in mid-June until mid-September. Larvae were identified as N. splendens by morphological characters and verified with genetic analysis. Its occurrence strengthens the biogeographical link between the montane regions in British Columbia, Canada and Utah, United States of America with the southwest corner of Saskatchewan. This study highlights the importance of seasonal sampling, resolute species level identifications in biological surveys and the use of genetic analyses to obtain this level of identification.
Despite widespread recognition that the physiological systems underlying stress reactivity are well coordinated at a neurobiological level, surprisingly little empirical attention has been given to delineating precisely how the systems actually interact with one another when confronted with stress. We examined cross-system response proclivities in anticipation of and following standardized laboratory challenges in 664 4- to 14-year-olds from four independent studies. In each study, measures of stress reactivity within both the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (i.e., the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system) and the corticotrophin releasing hormone system (i.e., the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis) were collected. Latent profile analyses revealed six distinctive patterns that recurred across the samples: moderate reactivity (average cross-system activation; 52%–80% of children across samples), parasympathetic-specific reactivity (2%–36%), anticipatory arousal (4%–9%), multisystem reactivity (7%–14%), hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis specific reactivity (6%–7%), and underarousal (0%–2%). Groups meaningfully differed in socioeconomic status, family adversity, and age. Results highlight the sample-level reliability of children's neuroendocrine responses to stress and suggest important cross-system regularities that are linked to development and prior experiences and may have implications for subsequent physical and mental morbidity.