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The main question that Firestone & Scholl (F&S) pose is whether “what and how we see is functionally independent from what and how we think, know, desire, act, and so forth” (sect. 2, para. 1). We synthesize a collection of concerns from an interdisciplinary set of coauthors regarding F&S's assumptions and appeals to intuition, resulting in their treatment of visual perception as context-free.
The contents of the cytokinins zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), and isopentenyladenine (IPA), the combined contents of gibberellins1 + 3 (GA), and the contents of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were measured during the development of the desiccation-sensitive seeds of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. During the stage of histodifferentiation the amounts of these plant growth regulators (PGRs) were measured on whole fruits. During the phase of seed growth and reserve accumulation measurements were made on the embryonic axis, cotyledons and pericarp separately. Patterns in the amounts of PGRs present during histodifferentiation were similar to those reported for desiccation-tolerant seeds and it suggested that this process is under similar ‘hormonal’ control in A. marina as in orthodox seeds. Very high contents of cytokinins, particularly ZR, were present in both axes and cotyledons during reserve accumulation. This is thought to be related to the nature of the reserves accumulated (soluble sugars), rather than to the phenomenon of desiccation sensitivity. With the exception of ABA, embryonic contents of PGRs were relatively high at seed shedding, consistent with the rapid germination of this highly recalcitrant seed. ABA contents in the embryo were low during reserve accumulation, but concentrations in the pericarp increased throughout this development stage. ABA in the perticap could act to prevent precocious germination. The low concentrations of ABA in the embryo could be related to the desiccation-sensitivity of the seeds of A. marina.
Cognitive deficits in neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1) have
been documented in both the verbal and visuospatial domains.
Previous investigations from our laboratory have determined
a specific pattern of “spared” (Picture Arrangement,
Picture Completion, and Rapid Automatized Naming) and
“impaired” (Judgment of Line Orientation, Vocabulary,
and Block Design) performance on cognitive measures in this
population when compared to sibling-matched controls in pairwise
designs. Growth curve analyses were conducted on these repeated
measures in 19 patients with NF-1 and their siblings to investigate
the longitudinal course and growth pattern of these spared and
impaired measures. Results indicated that over time children
with NF-1 do not catch up to their siblings on impaired measures,
and they continue to perform similarly to their siblings on
the spared measures. With respect to growth rates, on average
across the 6 cognitive measures there was no significant difference
between the groups. However, the variation among families
for level of performance was estimated to be larger than variation
among siblings within a family for 2 out of 6 cognitive measures
(i.e., providing for these 2, Vocabulary and Rapid Automatized
Naming, evidence of substantial familial correlation), suggesting
that there is need to consider NF-1 associated deficits within
a familial context. (JINS, 2002, 8, 838–846.)
The relationship between ponderal, linear and lower leg growth in children recovering from severe malnutrition remains unclear. We report on the early growth of 141 severely malnourished Bangladeshi children aged 6 to 36 months of age who were followed for 90 d. Mean (SD) weight for height (WHZ) and height for age (HAZ) catch-up growth Z scores over the 90 d were 1.6 (0.85) and 0.47 (0.325) respectively. mean (SD) lower leg length growth was 10.35 (4.5) mm. Change in HAZ was significantly associated with initial WHZ, but linear growth occurred in the presence of severe wasting and no threshold WHZ score was identified. Lower leg length gain correlated throughout with ponderal indices but with change in HAZ score only after day 45. Only initial WHZ score and maternal height predicted for linear growth and only accounted for 20 % of total variance. We conclude that linear growth occurs early in severely malnourished children but that knemometry behaves as a ponderal index acutely.
This study assessed two relevant aspects of executive
dysfunction in children with either Tourette syndrome (TS)
or ADHD. Process variables derived from existing neuropsychological
measures were used to clarify the executive function construct.
Clustering of responses on measures of verbal fluency,
figural fluency, and verbal learning was examined to assess
strategic response organization. Rule breaks, intrusions,
and repetition errors were recorded to assess inhibition
errors. No significant differences were found among the
three groups (TS, ADHD, and controls) on tasks of response
organization (clustering). In our sample, both the ADHD
and the TS groups were largely free from executive function
impairment, and their performance on the fluency and list
learning tasks was in the average range. There was a significant
group difference on one of the disinhibition variables,
with both TS and ADHD groups showing significantly more
intrusions on verbal list learning trials than controls.
When more traditional total score variables were analyzed
among the three groups, there were no significant differences;
however, analysis of effect size revealed medium-to-large
effect sizes for Letter Word Fluency total score differences
(ADHD vs. controls), and for Semantic Word Fluency
total score differences (ADHD vs. TS), with the
ADHD group having weaker performance in both comparisons.
Results provide some support for the use and analysis of
process variables—particularly those related to inhibition
and intrusion errors, in addition to the total score variables
when assessing executive function deficits in children
with ADHD and TS. While group differences may be found,
children with uncomplicated TS should not routinely be
considered to have significant executive function impairments,
and when deficits are found, they may be attributable to
other comorbid disorders. (JINS, 2001, 7,
Seventy-three patients with the features of ‘cycloid psychosis’, adopted from Perris and Leonhard, were identified from case records. Information concerning background, presenting illness and follow-up was compared with that from the case-records of patients with schizophrenic, affective and schizoaffective psychoses. The characteristic features of ‘cycloid psychosis’ were a female predominance and a remittent course. The ‘cycloid’ group resembled the conventional groups in some respects, but differences from schizophrenic, affective and, to a lesser extent, schizoaffective groups were also striking. The factors which might account for the apparent independence of the ‘cycloid’ group from other diagnostic categories are discussed.