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A lasting legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007–2008 was the promotion of the Permafrost Young Researchers Network (PYRN), initially an IPY outreach and education activity by the International Permafrost Association (IPA). With the momentum of IPY, PYRN developed into a thriving network that still connects young permafrost scientists, engineers, and researchers from other disciplines. This research note summarises (1) PYRN’s development since 2005 and the IPY’s role, (2) the first 2015 PYRN census and survey results, and (3) PYRN’s future plans to improve international and interdisciplinary exchange between young researchers. The review concludes that PYRN is an established network within the polar research community that has continually developed since 2005. PYRN’s successful activities were largely fostered by IPY. With >200 of the 1200 registered members active and engaged, PYRN is capitalising on the availability of social media tools and rising to meet environmental challenges while maintaining its role as a successful network honouring the legacy of IPY.
Background: When measuring young Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL), parent-proxy reports are heavily relied on. Therefore, it is imperative that the relationship between parent-proxy and child self-report HRQoL is understood. This study examined the level of agreement between children and their parent-proxy rating of the child’s HRQoL. Methods: We used FOR-DMD clinical trial baseline data. HRQoL, measured using the PedsQL inventory, was reported by 178 parent and child (ages 4 to 7 years) dyads. Intracorrelation coefficients (ICC) measured absolute agreement while paired t-tests determined differences in the average HRQoL ratings between groups. Results: The level of agreement between child and parent-proxy ratings of HRQoL was poor for the generic PedsQL scale (ICC: 0.29) and its subscales; and, similarly low for the neuromuscular disease module (ICC:0.16). On average, parents rated their child’s HRQoL as poorer than the children rated themselves in all scales except for psychosocial and school functioning. Conclusions: Child and parent-proxy HRQoL ratings are discordant in this study sample, as occurs in other chronic pediatric diseases. This should be taken into account when interpreting clinical and research HRQoL findings in this population. Future studies should examine reasons for parents’ perception of poorer HRQoL than that reported by their children.
Dairy cows can have different degrees of hypocalcaemia around calving. Lowering dietary Ca availability before calving can prevent it. Rice bran, treated for lower rumen degradability of phytic acid can reduce dietary availability of Ca. During 3 periods of 3 weeks, 113 multiparous cows calved in a single close-up group, which was fed first a control diet, then 140 g/kg DM of rumen-protected rice bran, and at last the control diet again. Cows joined the group 3 weeks before expected calving date and left it at calving. Blood samples were taken weekly before parturition and 0, 6 and 12 h after calving, as well as 3 and 28 d in lactation. Serum was analysed for Ca, Mg, and P. Rice bran introduction produced a transient serum Ca decrease. Rice bran feeding reduced serum P and its withdrawal reduced serum Mg. Serum Ca at calving, nadir of serum Ca and serum Ca the first 3 d after calving was higher in cows calving during rice bran feeding. Serum P decreased less and recovered faster after calving when cows had been fed rice bran. Rumen-protected rice bran reduced dietary availability of Ca and induced adaptation of Ca metabolism resulting in improved Ca and P homoeostasis at calving.
The Hellenization of Christianity is a long-standing and notoriously contentious historiographical construct in early Christian studies. While it has been deployed in surprisingly fluid ways, most scholars associate the thesis with Adolf von Harnack, for whom it acquired a decidedly critical valence. The “Hellenic spirit”—a concept Harnack usually left undefined—constituted a threat to the undogmatic gospel of Jesus. Whenever this adversarial Hellenic spirit triumphed, as it inevitably did, it corroded an authentic living Christianity into an institutionalized, dogmatic religion. For many others, both before and after Harnack, the Hellenization of Christianity has signaled a similar narrative of decline. The teachings and way of life that marked an authentic Christianity often stood in a disjunctive relationship with Greco-Roman culture, especially its philosophies. The influence of the latter precipitated a debasement of Christianity, the ossification of its teachings, or more seriously, the infiltration of heresy.
Dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) appears to be emerging in Hanoi in recent years. A case-control study was performed to investigate risk factors for the development of DF/DHF in Hanoi. A total of 73 patients with DF/DHF and 73 control patients were included in the study. The risk factor analysis indicated that living in rented housing, living near uncovered sewers, and living in a house discharging sewage directly into to ponds were all significantly associated with DF/DHF. People living in rented houses were 2·2 times more at risk of DF/DHF than those living in their own homes [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·1–4·6]. People living in an unhygienic house, or in a house discharging sewage directly to the ponds were 3·4 times and 4·3 times, respectively, more likely to be associated with DF/DHF (aOR 3·4, 95% CI 1–11·7; aOR 4·3, 95% CI 1·1–16·9). These results contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of dengue transmission in Hanoi, which is needed to implement dengue prevention and control programmes effectively and efficiently.
Agricultural production systems that reduce the use of in-crop herbicides
could greatly reduce risks of environmental damage and the development of
herbicide-resistant weeds. Few studies have investigated the long-term
effects of in-crop herbicide omissions on weed seedbank community size and
structure. A crop-rotation study was sampled 10 yr after a strictly annual
rotation and an annual/perennial rotation were exposed to different in-crop
herbicide omission treatments. In-crop herbicides were applied either in all
annual crops (control), omitted from oats only, or omitted from both flax
and oats. Seedbank densities were greatest when in-crop herbicides were
omitted from flax and oats, and this treatment also reduced crop yield.
Shannon-Wiener diversity differed among crops in the annual crop rotation
and among herbicide omission treatments in the perennial rotation. Herbicide
omissions changed the weed-community structure in flax and in wheat and
canola crops in the annual rotation enough to warrant alternate control
methods in some treatments. The magnitude of the effects on the seedbank
parameters depended largely on the competitive ability of the crop in which
herbicides were omitted. No yield response to omitting herbicides in oats
indicated that standard weed management practices have reduced weed
populations below yield-loss thresholds.
High mobility channel materials and new device structures will be needed to meet the power and performance specifications in future technology nodes. Therefore, the use of Ge and III/V materials and novel devices such as heterojunction TunnelFET’s is investigated for future CMOS applications. High-performance CMOS can be obtained by combining Ge pMOS devices with nMOS devices made on III/V compounds such as InGaAs. In all cases the key challenge is the electrical passivation of the interface between the high-k dielectric and the alternative channel materials.
Recent studies have demonstrated good electrical properties of the GeO2/Ge interface. Since the GeO2 layer is very hygroscopic, full in-situ processing of GeO2 formation and high-k deposition must be performed or other methods must be employed to stabilize the GeO2 layer. One of the most successful passivation techniques for Ge MOS gate stacks is a thin, epitaxial layer of Si. A lot of attention went into better understanding of this passivation and the effects of its optimization on various device characteristics. It was found that mobility and Vt trends in both pMOS and nMOS transistors can be explained based on defects located at the Si/SiO2 interface.
Unfortunately, III-V/oxide interfaces are not quite as robust and most interfaces present rather high densities of interface states. Although, considerable improvements have been realized in the reduction of the interface state density, further developments are required to obtain high performance MOS devices. To this purpose various passivation methods were critically evaluated. Simulations using Density Functional Theory reveal the possibility of using a thin amorphous layer made of GeOX to obtain an electrically unpinned gap. The major challenge resides in the control of the c-Ge thickness and the oxidation of this layer to avoid the diffusion of oxygen atoms at the Ge/GaAs(001) interface. Promising results are obtained by optimizing the surface preparation, high-k deposition and annealing cycle on In0.53Ga0.47As-Al2O3 interfaces. Self-aligned inversion channel n-MOSFETs fabricated on p-type In0.53Ga0.47As demonstrate inversion-mode operation with high drive current and a peak electron mobility of 3000 cm2/Vs.
Since ultimately the major showstopper on the scaling roadmap is not device speed, but rather power density, the introduction of these advanced materials will have to go together with the introduction of new device concepts. Novel structures such as heterojunction TunnelFET’s can fully exploit the properties of these new materials and provide superior performance at lower power consumption by virtue of their improved subthreshold behaviour. Vertical surround gate devices produced from nanowires allow the introduction of a wide range of materials on Si. This illustrates the possibilities that are created by the combination of new materials and devices to allow scaling of nanoelectronics beyond the Si roadmap.
Individual symptoms of post-myocardial infarction (MI) depression may be differentially associated with cardiac prognosis, in which somatic/affective symptoms appear to be associated with a worse cardiovascular prognosis than cognitive/affective symptoms. These findings hold important implications for treatment but need to be replicated before conclusions regarding treatment can be drawn. We therefore examined the relationship between depressive symptom dimensions following MI and both disease severity and prospective cardiac prognosis.
Patients (n=473) were assessed on demographic and clinical variables and completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) within the first week of hospital admission for acute MI. Depressive symptom dimensions were associated with baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and prospective cardiac death and/or recurrent MI. The average follow-up period was 2.8 years.
Factor analysis revealed two symptom dimensions – somatic/affective and cognitive/affective – in the underlying structure of the BDI, identical to previous results. There were 49 events attributable to cardiac death (n=23) or recurrent MI (n=26). Somatic/affective (p=0.010) but not cognitive/affective (p=0.153) symptoms were associated with LVEF and cardiac death/recurrent MI. When controlling for the effects of previous MI and LVEF, somatic/affective symptoms remained significantly predictive of cardiac death/recurrent MI (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.69, p=0.038). Previous MI was also an independent predictor of cardiac death/recurrent MI.
We confirmed that somatic/affective, rather than cognitive/affective, symptoms of depression are associated with MI severity and cardiovascular prognosis. Interventions to improve cardiovascular prognosis by treating depression should be targeted at somatic aspects of depression.
A retrospective study of 258 children admitted to Ruchill Hospital, Glasgow, with croup between 1966 and 1972 indicated that the viruses most frequently associated with the syndrome were parainfluenza types 1 and 3 and influenza A. Most cases were admitted in the late autumn and winter months, with a small peak in May and June. This seasonal distribution mirrored the circulation of the main causative agents in the community, parainfluenza 1 being principally associated with the autumn cases, influenza A the winter cases and parainfluenza 3 the summer cases. Two of these ‘croup associated’ viruses showed regular periodicity, parainfluenza 1 occurring biennially in even years and influenza A in most years. The periodicity of parainfluenza 3 is as yet undetermined.
The period doubling renormalization operator was introduced by Feigenbaum and by Coullet and Tresser in the 1970s to study the asymptotic small-scale geometry of the attractor of one-dimensional systems that are at the transition from simple to chaotic dynamics. This geometry turns out not to depend on the choice of the map under rather mild smoothness conditions. The existence of a unique renormalization fixed point that is also hyperbolic among generic smooth-enough maps plays a crucial role in the corresponding renormalization theory. The uniqueness and hyperbolicity of the renormalization fixed point were first shown in the holomorphic context, by means that generalize to other renormalization operators. It was then proved that, in the space of C2+α unimodal maps, for α>0, the period doubling renormalization fixed point is hyperbolic as well. In this paper we study what happens when one approaches from below the minimal smoothness thresholds for the uniqueness and for the hyperbolicity of the period doubling renormalization generic fixed point. Indeed, our main result states that in the space of C2 unimodal maps the analytic fixed point is not hyperbolic and that the same remains true when adding enough smoothness to get a priori bounds. In this smoother class, called C2+∣⋅∣, the failure of hyperbolicity is tamer than in C2. Things get much worse with just a bit less smoothness than C2, as then even the uniqueness is lost and other asymptotic behavior becomes possible. We show that the period doubling renormalization operator acting on the space of C1+Lip unimodal maps has infinite topological entropy.
A uranopilite from The South Alligator River, Northern Territory, Australia, has been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDAX attachment, and thermogravimetry in conjunction with evolved gas mass spectrometry. The XRD shows that the mineral is a pure uranopilite with few if any impurities. The SEM images show that the uranopilite consists of elongated crystals, up to 50μm long and 5 μm wide. Thermogravimetry combined with mass spectrometry shows that dehydration occurs at ∼31°C resulting in the formation of metauranopilite. The first dehydration step over 20–71°C corresponds to a decrease of 5.4 wt.%, equivalent to 6.076 H2O. The second dehydration step, over the temperature range 71 –162.4°C corresponds to a decrease of 4.7 wt.%, equivalent to 5.288 H2O, making a total of 11.364 moles of H2O, close to 12 H2O for uranopilite.
Dehydroxylation takes place over the temperature range 80–160°C. The loss of sulphate occurs at higher temperatures in two steps at 622 and 636°C. A mass loss also occurs at 755°C, accounted for by evolved oxygen.
Two mixites from Boss Tweed Mine, Tintic District, Juab County, Utah and Tin Stope, Majuba Hill, Pershing County, Nevada, USA, were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and by Raman spectroscopy. The SEM images show the mixite crystals to be elongated fibres up to 200 μm long and 2 μm wide. Detailed images of the mixite crystals show the mineral to be composed of bundles of fibres. The EDX analyses depend on the crystal studied, though the Majuba mixite gave analyses which matched the formula BiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6.3H2O. Raman bands observed in the 880–910 cm−1 and 867–870 cm−1 regions are assigned to the AsO-stretching vibrations of (HAsO4)2− and (H2AsO4)− units, whilst bands at 803 and 833 cm−1 are assigned to the stretching vibrations of uncomplexed (AsO4)3- units. Intense bands observed at 473.7 and 475.4 cm−1 are assigned to the v4 bending mode of AsO4 units. Bands observed at 386.5, 395.3 and 423.1 cm−1 are assigned to the v2 bending modes of the HAsO4 (434 and 400 cm−1) and the AsO4 groups (324 cm−1). Raman spectroscopy lends itself to the identification of minerals on host matrices and is especially useful for the identification of mixites.