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This study aimed to screen young adults for sleep-disordered breathing, and compare those with high and low risk for sleep-disordered breathing.
A survey based on the Berlin questionnaire was completed by 330 university students, and the results were used to divide them into sleep-disordered breathing positive and sleep-disordered breathing negative groups. A representative group was selected from each cohort (positive group, n = 16; negative group, n = 21), and assessed with sleep study, ENT examination, the Nose Obstruction Symptom Evaluation scale, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.
Sleep-disordered breathing prevalence was 11.2 per cent in the questionnaire and 24 per cent according to the sleep study. The sleep-disordered breathing positive and negative groups significantly differed in terms of coexisting sleep-disordered breathing symptoms. There were no significant differences between the positive and negative groups with regard to sleep study parameters (apnoea/hypopnoea index, respiratory disturbance index, oxygen desaturation index, snoring intensity) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.
Subjective and objective diagnostic tools revealed that sleep-disordered breathing is a common problem among young adults.
Apart from its role as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid is also thought to regulate various stages of cell proliferation and differentiation in the brain and periphery. The present study aimed to assess the levels of γ-aminobutyric acid and its biochemical precursor glutamic acid (glutamate) in benign parotid tumours and in unstimulated parotid saliva.
Unstimulated parotid saliva was collected bilaterally, using the swab method, in 20 patients with unilateral pleomorphic adenoma or Warthin's tumour. Samples of tumour and adjacent salivary tissue were collected during tumour resection.
Concentrations of γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate, but not aspartate, were significantly higher in the tumour tissue than in the non-tumour tissue. There was no significant difference in salivary concentrations of γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate or aspartate, comparing the involved and non-involved side.
The present results provide preliminary evidence that γ-aminobutyric acid may be involved in the growth of benign parotid tumours.
To demonstrate the importance of detailed, multidisciplinary examination of patients with post-tonsillectomy taste distortions, and to show that post-tonsillectomy dysgeusia may originate in the caudal part of the soft palate.
We describe a 29-year-old man who suffered from severe post-tonsillectomy dysgeusia and phantogeusia with secondary weight loss and depression-like symptomatology. The patient had normal electrogustometric thresholds and sensitivity to touch on the posterior tongue. In contrast, elevated taste threshold and reduced sensitivity to touch was found on the caudal part of the soft palate (the palatoglossal arches). More marked elevation of electrogustometric threshold and insensitivity to touch on the right palatoglossal arch correlated with post-operative haemorrhage from the right tonsillar fossa. Psychiatric examination excluded major depression, eating disorders and drug abuse.
Dysgeusia constitutes a rare but significant complication of tonsillectomy. Damage to the lingual branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve innervating the posterior tongue is thought to be a major cause of this complication. However, damage to the tonsillar branches of the glossopharyngeal nerve and the soft palate should also be considered as a cause of post-tonsillectomy dysgeusia. Further studies are needed to assess whether post-operative haemorrhage could indicate heightened risk of dysgeusia.
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