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Metal chalcogenides have attracted great attention because of their broad applications. It has been well acknowledged that microstructure can alter the intrinsic properties and performance of metal chalcogenides. The structure–property–performance relationships can be investigated at atomic scale with scanning transmission and transmission electron microscopy (STEM and TEM). Nevertheless, careful specimen preparation is paramount for accurate analyses and interpretations. In this work, we compare the effects of a variety of well-established TEM specimen preparation methods on the observed microstructure of an ingot stoichiometric lead telluride (PbTe). Most importantly, from aberration corrected STEM and first principles calculations, we discovered that argon (Ar) ion milling can lead to surface irradiation damage in the form of Pb vacancy clusters and self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters. The SIA clusters appear as orthogonal nanoscale features when characterized along the <001> crystal orientation of the rock salt structured PbTe. This obfuscates the interpretation of the intrinsic microstructure of metal chalcogenides, especially lead chalcogenides. We demonstrate that with sufficiently low energy (300 eV) Ar ion cleaning or appropriate high-temperature annealing, the surface damage layer can be properly cleaned and the orthogonal nanoscale features are significantly reduced. This reveals the materials’ intrinsic structure and can be used as the standard protocol for future TEM specimen preparation of lead-based chalcogenide materials.
Imprinted genes uniquely drive and support fetoplacental growth by controlling the allocation of maternal resources to the fetus and affecting the newborn’s growth. We previously showed that alterations of the placental imprinted gene expression are associated with suboptimal perinatal growth and respond to environmental stimuli including socio-economic determinants. At the same time, maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy (MPSP) has been shown to affect fetal growth. Here, we set out to test the hypothesis that placental imprinted gene expression mediates the effects of MPSP on fetal growth in a well-characterized birth cohort, the Stress in Pregnancy (SIP) Study. We observed that mothers experiencing high MPSP deliver infants with lower birthweight (P=0.047). Among the 109 imprinted genes tested, we detected panels of placental imprinted gene expression of 23 imprinted genes associated with MPSP and 26 with birthweight. Among these genes, five imprinted genes (CPXM2, glucosidase alpha acid (GAA), GPR1, SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 2 (SHANK2) and THSD7A) were common to the two panels. In multivariate analyses, controlling for maternal age and education and gestational age at birth and infant gender, two genes, GAA and SHANK2, each showed a 22% mediation of MPSP on fetal growth. These data provide new insights into the role that imprinted genes play in translating the maternal stress message into a fetoplacental growth pattern.
Blue compact dwarf galaxies(BCDs) are galaxies undergoing violent burst of star formation in compact regions. They are often thought of being an evolutionary stage of dwarf galaxies and thus can provide a unique window to study the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies. We selected a sample of 48 BCDs from the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey (MPL-7) and separated the starburst(SB) components from their underlying hosts with a new algorithm. Combining the structural properties of the BCDs, we further explore the physical connections between the SB components and theirs hosts.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has caused public health concerns worldwide. We aimed to investigate the effect of meteorological factors on the HFMD epidemic in Qingdao, a port city in China. A total of 78641 cases were reported in Qingdao between January 2007 and December 2014. Of those, 71084 (90·39%) occurred in children aged 0–5 years, with an incidence of 1691·2/100000. The incidence increased from early spring, peaked between spring and summer, and decreased in late summer. Aetiological agents in all severe cases and selected mild cases were characterized by examining throat swabs. Except for enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), other EVs caused >50% of the HFMD cases between 2011 and 2014. EV71 was more frequent in the off-peak months than in the peak months and prone to causing more severe cases compared to CA16 (χ2 = 46·3, P < 0·001). CA10 caused more severe HFMD than did CA6 (χ2 = 20·49, P < 0·001) and all non-CA10 EVs (χ2 = 41·01, P < 0·001). Community-derived HFMD cases accounted for 65·11%. Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that HFMD incidence in children aged 0–5 years was positively correlated with atmospheric temperature (rs = 0·77, P < 0·001), relative humidity (rs = 0·507, P < 0·001), and precipitation (rs = 0·328, P < 0·001). Climate changes and CA10 surveillance in communities should be integrated into the current prophylactic programme.
Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable polygenic disorder. Recent
enrichment analyses suggest that there may be true risk variants for
bipolar disorder in the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in the
We sought to assess the impact of eQTL variants on bipolar disorder risk
by combining data from both bipolar disorder genome-wide association
studies (GWAS) and brain eQTL.
To detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence
expression levels of genes associated with bipolar disorder, we jointly
analysed data from a bipolar disorder GWAS (7481 cases and 9250 controls)
and a genome-wide brain (cortical) eQTL (193 healthy controls) using a
Bayesian statistical method, with independent follow-up replications. The
identified risk SNP was then further tested for association with
hippocampal volume (n = 5775) and cognitive performance
(n = 342) among healthy individuals.
Integrative analysis revealed a significant association between a brain
eQTL rs6088662 on chromosome 20q11.22 and bipolar disorder (log Bayes
factor = 5.48; bipolar disorder P =
5.85×10–5). Follow-up studies across multiple independent
samples confirmed the association of the risk SNP (rs6088662) with gene
expression and bipolar disorder susceptibility (P =
3.54×10–8). Further exploratory analysis revealed that
rs6088662 is also associated with hippocampal volume and cognitive
performance in healthy individuals.
Our findings suggest that 20q11.22 is likely a risk region for bipolar
disorder; they also highlight the informative value of integrating
functional annotation of genetic variants for gene expression in
advancing our understanding of the biological basis underlying complex
disorders, such as bipolar disorder.
In this work, we reported the optical photometry monitoring results for two brightest nearby quasars, PHL 1811 and 3C 273 using the ST-6 camera at Abastumani Observatory, Georgia. For PHL 1811, we found 3 microvariability events with time scale of ΔT = 6.0 min. For 3C273, we found that the largest variations are ΔV = 0.369 ± 0.028 mag, ΔR = 0.495 ± 0.076 mag, and ΔI = 0.355 ± 0.009 mag. When periodicity analysis methods are adopted to the available data, a period of p = 5.80 ± 1.12 years is obtained for PHL 1811, and p = 21.10 ± 0.14, 10.00 ± 0.14, 7.30 ± 0.09, 13.20 ± 0.09, 2.10 ± 0.06, and 0.68 ± 0.05 years are obtained for 3C 273.
Variability is one of the extreme observational properties of BL Lacertae objects. AO 0235+164 is a well studied BL Lac through the whole electro-magnetic wavebands, it is violently variable in the optical bands. In the present work, we show its optical R band photometric observations carried out during the period of Nov. 2006 to Dec. 2012 using the Ap6E CCD camera attached to the primary focus of the 70 cm meniscus telescope at Abastumani Observatory, Georgia. It shows a large variation of ΔR = 4.88 mag (14.20 - 19.08 mag) during our monitoring period. When periodicity analysis methods are adopted to its R observations from our Abastumani monitoring programme and those in the literature, the signs of some periods, P1 = 8.26 yr, P2 = 0.55 yr, P3 = 0.85 yr, P4 = 1.99 yr are found.
In this talk, we will show the beaming effect for Fermi/LAT blazars, then we discuss the correlations between γ-ray luminosity and other parameters, such as radio Doppler factors, superluminal motions, and core-dominance parameters. We also compare the Doppler factors determined from the γ-ray luminosity, X-ray emissions, and the short-term time scales with those from other methods. Our discussions suggest that γ-ray emissions may be strongly beamed.
The crystal structure of a-plane GaN/ZnO heterostructures on r-plane sapphire was investigated by using the XRD and TEM measurment. It was found the formation of (220) ZnGa2O4 and crystal orientation of semipolar (10
3) GaN at GaN/ZnO interface. The epitaxial relation of normal surface direction are the sapphire (1
02) // a-GaN (11
0) and ZnGa2O4 (220) // semi-polar GaN (10
). Beside, the emission peak energy of ZnO appears shift about 60 meV in the GaN/ZnO/GaN heterostructures due to the re-crystallization of ZnO layer with Ga or N atom and the formation of the localized state.
A low-resistance back contact for n-CdS/p-CdTe solar cells has been developed, which utilizes a thermally evaporated MoOx thin film as the buffer layer between the p-CdTe and the back electrode. The low-resistance behavior of back contact is attributed to the high work function of MoOx, which reportedly is as high as 6.8 eV, and thus adequately matches that of p-CdTe. With MoOx as the buffer, a variety of common metals, even those with a low work function such as Al, have been found to be useful as the electrode in forming the back contact. Other advantages of the MoOx buffer include dry application by vacuum deposition, and thus it is particularly suitable for the fabrication of ultra-thin CdTe solar cells without introducing additional shorting defects. Surface cleaning of CdTe films prior to MoOx deposition has also been studied. The cell stability has been evaluated through thermal annealing tests. Thermal degradation has been explained in terms of oxidation of the metal electrodes. CdTe cells with high efficiency and good stability have been demonstrated with MoOx as the back contact buffer and Ni as the electrode.
The aim of this study was determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium, M. fermentans, M. pirum, M. penetrans and Ureaplasma urealyticum in HIV-infected patients. Culture and PCR were used to detect six species of Mycoplasma in first-void urine of HIV-1 infected men. A total of 497 HIV/AIDS patients (age range 5–75 years, mean 37 years) were screened in the study. All presented positive for at least one kind of mycoplasma, especially U. urealyticum and M. hominis. Six mycoplasmas were significant in the homosexual contact and heterosexual contact groups. The distribution of M. hominis, M. penetrans, and M. pirum were significantly different in this four-transmission category. CD4+ cell count levels were lower in the AIDS-associated Mycoplasma-positive group than in the Mycoplasma-negative group (P<0·01). This study indicates that U. urealyticum, M. hominis and M. fermentans are prevalent in HIV-1-infected male patients. This may be an indication of whether mycoplasmas are co-factors in the progression of HIV disease.
We report on the optical and charge transport properties of novel alkali metal chalcogenides, Cs2Hg6S7 and Cs2Cd3Te4, pertaining to their use in radiation detection. Optical absorption, photoconductivity, and gamma ray response measurements for undoped crystals were measured. The band gap energies of the Cs2Hg6S7 and Cs2Cd3Te4 compounds are 1.63 eV and 2.45 eV, respectively. The mobility-lifetime products for charge carriers are of the order of ~10-3 cm2/V for electrons and ~10-4 cm2/V for holes. Detectors fabricated from the ternary compound Cs2Hg6S7 shows well-resolved spectroscopic features at room temperature in response to ϒ -rays at 122 keV from a 57Co source, indicating its potential as a radiation detector.
We address the issue of decreasing band-gap with increasing atomic number, inherent in semiconducting materials, by introducing a concept we call dimensional reduction. The concept leads to semiconductor compounds containing high atomic number elements and simultaneously exhibiting a large band gap and high mass density suggesting that dimensional reduction can be successfully employed in developing new γ-ray detecting materials. As an example we discuss the compound Cs2Hg6S7 that exhibits a band-gap of 1.65eV and mobility-lifetime products comparable to those of optimized Cd0.9Zn0.1Te.
A precise laser positioning system had been preliminarily developed for the girder system of the Taiwan Photon Source. This laser positioning system, a part of a girder auto-alignment scheme, will be installed on the girders located at both sides of each straight section of the storage ring. The system is composed of a laser and four sets of a position sensing device (PSD). The laser, held on one girder, propagates 13 m along the girder and plays the role of a reference line of girders of the straight section. Based on the laser linear characteristics, the other girder can be adjusted and aligned by a cam mover according to PSD data. To achieve superior precision, the whole laser positioning system should be constructed stably. After making some improvements to eliminate the unstable terms, the precision of the laser positioning system can achieve 2 µm at 13 m propagating distance every 4 h.
A simple and effective method is presented to fabricate
surface-roughened InGaN/GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) epistructure
using annealing-formed, random-distributed Au particle arrays as dry etching
mask. The shapes of GaN nanoislands, with horizontal diameters of 100–500 nm and vertical depths up to 140 nm, are determined by Au mask particles.
Importantly, this roughened surface exhibits strong photoluminescence (PL)
light-output enhancement by a factor of more than 1.6 orders of magnitude.
This method will put forward new promising applications in the
electroluminescent devices, especially in solid state lighting.
Hydrogen vacancy effect on the activation energy for self-diffusion is investigated by NEB method. The path was calculated by moving a hydrogen atom from a nearby complex into the vacancy in another complex. Compared with the substitution enthalpy of hydrogen vacancy, the activation energy for self-diffusion is easier to achieve during the dehydrogenation process.