To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Neonates are at high risk of bleeding after open-heart surgery. We sought to determine pre-operative and intra-operative risk factors for increased bleeding after neonatal open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of neonates (0–30 days old) who underwent open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass from January, 2009, to March, 2013. Cardiac diagnosis; demographic and surgical data; and blood products, haemostatic agents, and anti-thrombotic agents administered before, during, and within 24 hours after surgery were abstracted from the electronic health record and anaesthesia records. The outcome of interest was chest tube output (in ml/kg body weight) within 24 hours. Relationships between chest tube output and putative associated factors were evaluated by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression.
The cohort consisted of 107 neonates, of whom 79% had a Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (STAT) Mortality Category of 4 or 5. Median chest tube output was 37 ml/kg (range 9–655 ml/kg). Age, African-American race, and longer durations of surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass each had statistically significant associations with increased chest tube output in unadjusted analyses. In multivariable analysis, African-American race retained an independent, statistically significant association with increased chest tube output; the geometric mean of chest tube output among African-American neonates was 71% higher than that of Caucasians (95% confidence interval, 29–125%; p = 0.001).
Among neonates with CHD undergoing open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, African-American race is independently associated with greater chest tube output over the first 24 hours post-operatively.
We reviewed all patients who were supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and/or ventricular assist device at our institution in order to describe diagnostic characteristics and assess mortality.
A retrospective cohort study was performed including all patients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and/or ventricular assist device from our first case (8 October, 1998) through 25 July, 2016. The primary outcome of interest was mortality, which was modelled by the Kaplan–Meier method.
A total of 223 patients underwent 241 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs. Median support time was 4.0 days, ranging from 0.04 to 55.8 days, with a mean of 6.4±7.0 days. Mean (±SD) age at initiation was 727.4 days (±146.9 days). Indications for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were stratified by primary indication: cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=175; 72.6%) or respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=66; 27.4%). The most frequent diagnosis for cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients was hypoplastic left heart syndrome or hypoplastic left heart syndrome-related malformation (n=55 patients with HLHS who underwent 64 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs). For respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, the most frequent diagnosis was congenital diaphragmatic hernia (n=22). A total of 24 patients underwent 26 ventricular assist device runs. Median support time was 7 days, ranging from 0 to 75 days, with a mean of 15.3±18.8 days. Mean age at initiation of ventricular assist device was 2530.8±660.2 days (6.93±1.81 years). Cardiomyopathy/myocarditis was the most frequent indication for ventricular assist device placement (n=14; 53.8%). Survival to discharge was 42.2% for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients and 54.2% for ventricular assist device patients. Kaplan–Meier 1-year survival was as follows: all patients, 41.0%; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients, 41.0%; and ventricular assist device patients, 43.2%. Kaplan–Meier 5-year survival was as follows: all patients, 39.7%; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients, 39.7%; and ventricular assist device patients, 43.2%.
This single-institutional 18-year review documents the differential probability of survival for various sub-groups of patients who require support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or ventricular assist device. The indication for mechanical circulatory support, underlying diagnosis, age, and setting in which cannulation occurs may affect survival after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and ventricular assist device. The Kaplan–Meier analyses in this study demonstrate that patients who survive to hospital discharge have an excellent chance of longer-term survival.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.