Rust fungi in the genus Phragmidium are frequent pathogens of both wild and cultivated roses. We investigated the occurrence and relationships of rusts on dog roses, Rosa sect. Caninae (Rosa canina, R. corymbifera and R. rubiginosa) in Germany. Two Phragmidium species, P. mucronatum and P. tuberculatum, were able to infect each of the three dog rose species examined. However, the overall infection of R. rubiginosa was significantly lower, which could be important for rose breeding. Despite overlapping host ranges, the evolutionary background of P. tuberculatum and P. mucronatum is quite distinct. Phylogenetic analyses of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rDNA suggest that P. mucronatum shares a common ancestor with other rose rusts, whereas P. tuberculatum evolved from a Rubus-Sanguisorba rust clade and must have undergone a host shift to Rosa spp.