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Fear of falling in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been suggested as predictor of future falling. The purpose of this study was to compare fear of falling score after two years of follow-up with those observed at baseline and to assess factors associated with change in fear of falling over time.
A total of 120 consecutive persons with PD were recruited and followed for two years. Fear of falling was assessed by using the 10-item Falls Efficacy Scale (FES). Occurrence of falling was registered during the first year of follow-up.
After two years, the average FES score statistically significantly changed (p = 0.003) from 30.5 to 37.5 out of 100 (increase of 22.9%). We observed that median scores of all FES items, except for “Preparing a meal, not requiring carrying of heavy or hot objects” and “Personal grooming,” significantly increased after two-year follow-up. After accounting for age, gender, PD duration, levodopa dosage, Hoehn and Yayhr stage, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score three, depression, anxiety, and falling, we observed that sustaining greater number of falls in the first year of follow-up was associated with higher increase in FES score after two years (odds ratio 3.08, 95% confidence interval 1.30–4.87).
After two years of follow-up, we observed a decrease in confidence at performing nearly all basic daily activities. Fall prevention programs should be prioritized in management of PD.
Cerebral small vessel disease is rarely described in association with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a hereditary connective tissue disorder with skin, eye and vascular manifestations. This autosomally inherited elastic tissue disease has been attributed to mutations in the ABCC6 gene located on chromosome 16p13.1. Different stroke mechanisms are suggested in PXE patients, arterial hypertension and accelerated atherosclerosis being the leading ones.
Case 1: A 49-year-old man with history of mild hypertension presented with recurrent transient ischemic attacks. At the age of 42, evaluation for progressive visual loss and skin changes led to diagnosis of PXE. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed multiple lacunar infarctions and confluent periventricular white matter lesions (WML). Case 2: A 71-year-old woman with history of mild hypertension suffered right-sided stroke. Diagnosis of PXE was made at the age of 48 due to severe visual loss and skin changes. Brain MRI revealed multiple lacunar infarctions and subcortical ischemic leukoencephalopathy. Case 3: A 47-year-old woman with prominent skin changes and bilateral amblyopia developed right-sided weakness. Skin biopsy confirmed PXE. Several lacunar infarcts in deep white matter and pons were revealed on MRI. Discussion: We present three patients with clinical and histopathological features of PXE who presented with multiple lacunar strokes, two with extensive confluent WML. These cases illustrate that PXE is a rare but significant risk factor for small vessel disease and stroke in patients of all age groups. Occlusive small vessel disease and subsequent lacunar infarcts and WML represent important PXE manifestations.