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To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Approach (IMA) and the INICC Surveillance Online System (ISOS) on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in Argentina from January 2014 to April 2017.
This prospective, pre–post surveillance study of 3,940 ICU patients was conducted in 11 hospitals in 5 cities in Argentina. During our baseline evaluation, we performed outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Health Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions. During the intervention, we implemented the IMA through ISOS: (1) a bundle of infection prevention practice interventions, (2) education, (3) outcome surveillance, (4) process surveillance, (5) feedback on CLABSI rates and consequences, and (6) performance feedback of process surveillance. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed using a logistic regression model to estimate the effect of the intervention on the CLABSI rate.
During the baseline period, 5,118 CL days and 49 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 9.6 CLABSIs per 1,000 central-line (CL) days. During the intervention, 15,659 CL days and 68 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 4.1 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL days. The CLABSI rate was reduced by 57% (incidence density rate: 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.6; P<.001).
Implementing IMA through ISOS was associated with a significant reduction in the CLABSI rate in ICUs in Argentina.
Ca is not only essential for bone mineralisation, but also for regulation of extracellular and intracellular processes. When the Ca2+ intake is low, the efficiency of intestinal Ca2+ absorption and renal Ca2+ reabsorption is increased. This adaptive mechanism involves calcitriol enhancement via parathyroid hormone stimulation. Bone is also highly affected. Low Ca2+ intake is considered a risk factor for osteoporosis. Patients with renal lithiasis may be at higher risk of recurrence of stone formation when they have low Ca2+ intake. The role of dietary Ca2+ on the regulation of lipid metabolism and lipogenic genes in adipocytes might explain an inverse relationship between dairy intake and BMI. Dietary Ca2+ restriction produces impairment of the adipocyte apoptosis and dysregulation of glucocorticosteroid metabolism in the adipose tissue. An inverse relationship between hypertension and a low-Ca2+ diet has been described. Ca2+ facilitates weight loss and stimulates insulin sensitivity, which contributes to the decrease in the blood pressure. There is also evidence that dietary Ca2+ is associated with colorectal cancer. Dietary Ca2+ could alter the ratio of faecal bile acids, reducing the cytotoxicity of faecal water, or it could activate Ca2+-sensing receptors, triggering intracellular signalling pathways. Also it could bind luminal antigens, transporting them into mucosal mononuclear cells as a mechanism of immunosurveillance and promotion of tolerance. Data relative to nutritional Ca2+ and incidences of other human cancers are controversial. Health professionals should be aware of these nutritional complications and reinforce the dairy intakes to ensure the recommended Ca2+ requirements and prevent diseases.
Perspectives from 22 countries on aspects of the legal environment for selection are presented in this article. Issues addressed include (a) whether there are racial/ethnic/religious subgroups viewed as “disadvantaged,” (b) whether research documents mean differences between groups on individual difference measures relevant to job performance, (c) whether there are laws prohibiting discrimination against specific groups, (d) the evidence required to make and refute a claim of discrimination, (e) the consequences of violation of the laws, (f) whether particular selection methods are limited or banned, (g) whether preferential treatment of members of disadvantaged groups is permitted, and (h) whether the practice of industrial and organizational psychology has been affected by the legal environment.
This study estimated the number of HCWs with protective antibody levels 5 and 10 years after HBV vaccination. Kaplan-Meier probabilities of protective levels were 0.95 at 60 days after vaccination, 0.87 at 5 years, and 0.79 at 10 years. Those without protective levels displayed good response 7 and 30 days after a booster