Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) was domesticated in Mesoamerica and is native to the South American rainforest. Belizean Criollo is a group of relic landraces that are thought to be similar to those used by the Olmecs and Mayans during early domestication. Knowledge of genetic diversity is essential for efficient conservation and use of these relic landraces. Using 30 microsatellite markers, we characterized genetic diversity in 77 Belize Criollo accessions collected from the Maya Mountains in Belize, and assessed their relationship with 62 cacao accessions including 25 Trinitario accessions. Genetic diversity and heterozygosity were low in Belizean Criollo germplasm. Eleven distinctive genotypes were identified among the Belizean germplasm. Results of ordination and cluster analysis supported their putative ancestral contribution to the Trinitario cacao. However, results of Bayesian assignment and parentage analysis both suggested that the contribution of Criollo cacao to the Imperial College Selections Trinitario is small. Our preferred hypothesis for the genesis of Trinitario cacao is that a limited population of Criollo × Forastero hybrids emanated from the introduced Forastero population of Trinidad. The present study provides new insights into the origin of the Trinitario cacao, which will be useful in the ex situ and in situ conservation of cacao landraces from Mesoamerica.