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To analyse the relative frequency and gender ratios in the procedures (both surgical and catheter-based interventions) performed for cardiac diseases in Indian children.
Not many studies are available in the developing countries with regard to the prevalence, relative frequency, or gender distribution of cardiac diseases in children. As universal newborn screening is not carried out for congenital cardiac diseases, the statistics are difficult to ascertain. Do female and male children with cardiac disease get equal parental preference in terms of surgical correction and catheter interventions in India? This question is also unanswered.
Analysis of 15,066 consecutive Indian children aged <18 years who were operated upon or had catheter intervention at a single tertiary care centre. Relative frequency and male/female ratios of cardiac lesions in these children were determined and compared with the studies in literature.
Overall male/female ratio in the study was 1.4:1. Ventricular septal defect was the most common lesion (24.2%) with male/female ratio of 1.5:1, followed by tetralogy of Fallot (18.7%, 1.6:1), atrial septal defect (14.4%, 0.9:1) and so on. Male children dominated the total number of procedures performed.
In most of the individual cardiac lesions, the relative frequency was different from that of international studies. The gender ratio for the majority of the individual type of cardiac problems was different from that of international references. These findings may suggest a preference for the male child in the treatment of cardiac diseases in India, which could possibly be related to social causes.
To identify factors contributing to missed diagnosis of aortopulmonary windows on initial echocardiographic examination; and to analyze lesions associated with these malformations.
Retrospective study where echocardiographic findings and per-operative findings of patients were correlated by reviewing records.
Tertiary-care paediatric cardiac centre.
From May 2002 to September 2007, we diagnosed 50 patients with aortopulmonary windows. The group included 31 boys and 19 girls. Mean age at intervention was 1.7 years, with a range from 3 months to 17 years.
The diagnosis of aortopulmonary window was made correctly by echocardiography during initial evaluation in 46 of 50 patients (92%). The remaining 4 patients were diagnosed either during repeat echocardiographic evaluation, cardiac catheterization, or per-operatively. We describe the details of these patients. Of the 50 patients, 23 had associated malformations, including ventricular septal defects in 10 patients, patent arterial ducts in 9, atrial septal defects or patent oval foramens in 5, 3 of whom also had patent arterial ducts, interruption of the aortic arch at the isthmus in 4, or between the left subclavian and common carotid arteries in 2, tetralogy of Fallot in 2, double-outlet right ventricle in 2, discordant ventriculo-arterial connections in 2, 1 of whom also had anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk, and superior-inferior ventricles in 1 patient.
Even meticulous echocardiography may result in a false negative diagnosis of an aortopulmonary window. A high index of suspicion for this lesion is warranted in cases of unexplained severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, and/or unexplained cardiac dilation.
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