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Corn that is resistant to aryloxyphenoxypropionate, known commercially as Enlist™ corn, enables the use of quizalofop-p-ethyl (QPE) as a selective postemergence (POST) herbicide for control of glufosinate/glyphosate-resistant corn volunteers. Growers usually mix QPE with 2,4-D choline or glufosinate or both to achieve broad-spectrum weed control in Enlist corn. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the efficacy of QPE applied alone or mixed with 2,4-D choline and/or glufosinate to control glufosinate/glyphosate-resistant corn volunteers in Enlist corn and 2) to determine the effect of application time (V3 or V6 growth stage of volunteer corn) of QPE-based treatments on volunteer corn control and Enlist corn injury and yield. Field experiments were conducted in Clay Center, NE, in 2021 and 2022. Quizalofop-p-ethyl (46 or 93 g ai ha−1) applied at the V3 or V6 growth stage controlled volunteer corn by ≥88% and ≥95% at 14 and 28 d after treatment (DAT), respectively. QPE (46 g ai ha−1) mixed with 2,4-D choline (800 g ae ha−1) produced 33% less than expected control of V3 volunteer corn in 2021, and 8% less than expected control of V6 volunteer corn in 2022 at 14 DAT. Volunteer corn control was improved by 7% to 9% using the higher rate of QPE (93 g ai ha−1) in a mixture with 2,4-D choline (1,060 g ae ha−1). QPE mixed with glufosinate had an additive effect and interactions in any combinations were additive beyond 28 DAT. Mixing 2,4-D choline can reduce QPE efficacy on glufosinate/glyphosate-resistant corn volunteers up to 14 DAT when applied at the V3 or V6 growth stage; however, the antagonistic interaction did not translate into corn yield loss. Increasing the rate of QPE (93 g ai ha−1) while mixing with 2,4-D choline can reduce antagonism.
Shattercane is a problematic summer annual grass weed species in regions that produce grain sorghum. Three shattercane populations (DC8, GH4, and PL8) collected from sorghum fields from northwestern Kansas survived the field-use rate (52 g ha−1) of postemergence-applied imazamox. The main objectives of this research were to 1) confirm and characterize the level of resistance to imazamox in putative imazamox-resistant (IMI-R) shattercane populations, 2) investigate the underlying mechanism of resistance, and 3) determine the effectiveness of postemergence herbicides for controlling IMI-R populations. A previously known imazamox susceptible (SUS) shattercane population from Rooks County, KS, was used. All three putative populations exhibited a 4.1-fold to 6.0-fold resistance to imazamox compared with the SUS population. The ALS gene sequences from all IMI-R populations did not reveal any known target-site resistance mutations. A pretreatment with malathion, which inhibits cytochrome P450, followed by imazamox at various doses, reversed the resistance phenotype of the PL8 population. In a separate greenhouse study, postemergence treatments with nicosulfuron, quizalofop, clethodim, and glyphosate resulted in ≥96% injury to all IMI-R populations. The lack of known ALS target-site mutations and the reversal of resistance phenotype by malathion suggest the possibility of metabolism-based resistance to imazamox in PL8 shattercane population.
Multiple herbicide-resistant (MHR) kochia is a serious concern in the U.S. Great Plains and warrants alternative herbicide mixtures for its control. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted at Kansas State University research and extension centers near Hays and Garden City, KS, to investigate the interactions of 2,4-D, dichlorprop-p, dicamba, and halauxifen/fluroxypyr premix in various combinations for MHR kochia control. Two previously confirmed MHR (resistant to glyphosate, dicamba, and fluroxypyr) populations and a susceptible population were tested in a greenhouse study. Kochia at the Hays field site was resistant to glyphosate and chlorsulfuron, whereas the population at Garden City was resistant to glyphosate, dicamba, and fluroxypyr. Results from a greenhouse study indicated that 2,4-D, dicamba, dichlorprop-p, and a halauxifen/fluroxypyr premix provided 26% to 69% control of both MHR populations at 28 d after treatment (DAT). However, the control increased to 85% to 97% when these herbicides were applied in three-way mixtures. Synergistic interactions were observed when dicamba was mixed with dichlorprop-p, 2,4-D, dichlorprop-p + 2,4-D, and halauxifen/fluroxypyr + 2,4-D for shoot dry weight reductions (86% to 92%) of both MHR populations. Results from a field study also indicated synergistic interactions when dicamba was mixed with dichlorprop-p + 2,4-D, halauxifen/fluroxypyr + dichlorprop-p, and halauxifen/fluroxypyr + 2,4-D, resulting in 84% to 95% control of MHR kochia at 28 DAT across both sites. These results indicate that synergistic effects of mixing dicamba with other auxinic herbicides in two- or three-way mixtures can help control MHR kochia.
The herbicides that inhibit 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) are primarily used for weed control in corn, barley, oat, rice, sorghum, sugarcane, and wheat production fields in the United States. The objectives of this review were to summarize 1) the history of HPPD-inhibitor herbicides and their use in the United States; 2) HPPD-inhibitor resistant weeds, their mechanism of resistance, and management; 3) interaction of HPPD-inhibitor herbicides with other herbicides; and 4) the future of HPPD-inhibitor-resistant crops. As of 2022, three broadleaf weeds (Palmer amaranth, waterhemp, and wild radish) have evolved resistance to the HPPD inhibitor. The predominance of metabolic resistance to HPPD inhibitor was found in aforementioned three weed species. Management of HPPD-inhibitor-resistant weeds can be accomplished using alternate herbicides such as glyphosate, glufosinate, 2,4-D, or dicamba; however, metabolic resistance poses a serious challenge, because the weeds may be cross-resistant to other herbicide sites of action, leading to limited herbicide options. An HPPD-inhibitor herbicide is commonly applied with a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor to increase efficacy and weed control spectrum. The synergism with an HPPD inhibitor arises from depletion of plastoquinones, which allows increased binding of a PS II inhibitor to the D1 protein. New HPPD inhibitors from the azole carboxamides class are in development and expected to be available in the near future. HPPD-inhibitor-resistant crops have been developed through overexpression of a resistant bacterial HPPD enzyme in plants and the overexpression of transgenes for HPPD and a microbial gene that enhances the production of the HPPD substrate. Isoxaflutole-resistant soybean is commercially available, and it is expected that soybean resistant to other HPPD inhibitor herbicides such as mesotrione, stacked with resistance to other herbicides, will be available in the near future.
The CoAXium® Production System includes a new herbicide-resistant wheat (AXigen®) that allows for fall and/or spring postemergence (POST) applications of quizalofop-P-ethyl (QPE) for control of winter annual grass weeds. As area planted with AXigen® wheat increases, so will the use of QPE herbicide, and with this comes an increased chance for physical drift, tank contamination, or misapplication to nearby sensitive plants. A total of eight field studies were conducted at four locations during the 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 growing seasons to understand the response of nonresistant wheat when exposed to various rates of QPE herbicide. Five rates of QPE were evaluated: 1× (92 g ai ha−1), 1/10×, 1/50×, 1/100×, and 1/200×. Treatments of QPE were applied in the fall (2- to 3-leaf wheat) or in the spring (3- to 4-tiller wheat). Results indicated an interaction between application timing and QPE rate on grain yield for half of the site-years. The 1× rate resulted in complete or near complete grain yield loss regardless of application timing. However, QPE at the 1/10× rate resulted in yield loss ranging from 0% to 41% when fall-applied, whereas spring application resulted in 80% to 100% yield loss. For site-years when only the main effect of QPE rate was significant, 86% to 100% yield loss was observed following exposure to QPE at the 1/10× and 1× rates. For all site-years, it was infrequent that significant yield reductions were observed following the three lowest rates of QPE. If the two highest QPE rates were considered to represent tank contamination or misapplication and the three lowest rates physical drift, we can assume that physical drift of QPE to non-AXigen® wheat is not of major concern if proper application guidelines are followed. Conversely, tank contamination and misapplication should be carefully considered by growers who have planted both AXigen® and non-AXigen® wheat varieties.
Herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are widely grown throughout the United States and Canada. These crop-trait technologies can enhance weed management and therefore can be an important component of integrated weed management (IWM) programs. Concomitantly, evolution of HR weed populations has become ubiquitous in agricultural areas where HR crops are grown. Nevertheless, crop cultivars with new or combined (stacked) HR traits continue to be developed and commercialized. This review, based on a symposium held at the Western Society of Weed Science annual meeting in 2021, examines the impact of HR crops on HR weed management in the U.S. Great Plains, U.S. Pacific Northwest, and the Canadian Prairies over the past 25 yr and their past and future contributions to IWM. We also provide an industry perspective on the future of HR crop development and the role of HR crops in resistance management. Expanded options for HR traits in both major and minor crops are expected. With proper stewardship, HR crops can reduce herbicide-use intensity and help reduce selection pressure on weed populations. However, their proper deployment in cropping systems must be carefully planned by considering a diverse crop rotation sequence with multiple HR and non-HR crops and maximizing crop competition to effectively manage HR weed populations. Based on past experiences in the cultivation of HR crops and associated herbicide use in the western United States and Canada, HR crops have been important determinants of both the selection and management of HR weeds.
Evolution of multiple herbicide–resistant Palmer amaranth warrants the development of integrated strategies for its control in the southcentral Great Plains (SGP). To develop effective control strategies, a better understanding of the emergence biology of Palmer amaranth populations from the SGP region is needed. A common garden study was conducted in a no-till (NT) fallow field at the Kansas State University Agricultural Research Center near Hays, KS, during the 2018 and 2019 growing seasons, to determine the emergence pattern and periodicity of Palmer amaranth populations collected from the SGP region. Nine Palmer amaranth populations collected from five states were included: Colorado (CO1, CO2), Oklahoma (OK), Kansas (KS1, KS2), Texas (TX), and Nebraska (NE1, NE2, NE3). During the 2018 growing season, the CO1 and KS1 populations displayed more rapid emergence rates, with greater parameter b values (−5.4, and −5.3, respectively), whereas the TX and NE3 populations had the highest emergence rates (b = −12.2) in the 2019 growing season. The cumulative growing degree days (cGDD) required to achieve 10%, 50%, and 90% cumulative emergence ranged from 125 to 144, 190 to 254, and 285 to 445 in 2018; and 54 to 74, 88 to 160, and 105 to 420 in the 2019 growing season across all tested populations, respectively. The OK population exhibited the longest emergence duration (301 and 359 cGDD) in both growing seasons. All tested Palmer amaranth populations had a peak emergence period between May 11 and June 8 in 2018, and April 30 and June 1 in the 2019 growing season. Altogether, these results indicate the existence of differential emergence pattern and peak emergence periods of geographically distant Palmer amaranth populations from the SGP region. This information will help in developing prediction models for decision-making tools to manage Palmer amaranth in the region.
Late-season control of Palmer amaranth in postharvest wheat stubble is important for reducing the seedbank. Our objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of late-season postemergence herbicides for Palmer amaranth control, shoot dry biomass, and seed production in postharvest wheat stubble. Field experiments were conducted at Kansas State University Agricultural Research Center near Hays, KS, during 2019 and 2020 growing seasons. The study site had a natural seedbank of Palmer amaranth. Herbicide treatments were applied 3 wk after wheat harvest when Palmer amaranth plants had reached the inflorescence initiation stage. Palmer amaranth was controlled by 96% to 98% 8 wk after treatment and shoot biomass as well as seed production was prevented when paraquat was applied alone or when mixed with atrazine, metribuzin, flumioxazin, 2,4-D, sulfentrazone, pyroxasulfone + sulfentrazone, or flumioxazin + metribuzin, and with glyphosate + dicamba, glyphosate + 2,4-D, saflufenacil + 2,4-D, glufosinate + dicamba + glyphosate, and glufosinate + 2,4-D + glyphosate. Palmer amaranth was controlled by 89% to 93% with application of glyphosate, glufosinate, dicamba + 2,4-D, saflufenacil + atrazine, and saflufenacil + metribuzin resulting in Palmer amaranth shoot biomass of 15 to 56 g m−2 and production of 1,080 to 7,040 seeds m−2. Palmer amaranth control was less than 86% with application of dicamba, 2,4-D, dicamba + atrazine, and saflufenacil resulting in Palmer amaranth shoot biomass of 38 to 47 g m−2 and production of 3,110 to 6,190 seeds m−2. Palmer amaranth was controlled 63% and 72%, shoot biomass was 178 and 161 g m−2, and seed production was 35,180 and 39,510 seeds m−2, respectively, with application of 2,4-D + bromoxynil + fluroxypyr, and bromoxynil + pyrasulfotole + atrazine. Growers should use these effective postemergence herbicide mixes for Palmer amaranth control to prevent seed prevention postharvest in wheat stubble.
Palmer amaranth is the latest pigweed species documented in Connecticut; it was identified there in 2019. In a single-dose experiment, the Connecticut Palmer amaranth biotype survived the field-use rates of glyphosate (840 g ae ha−1) and imazaquin (137 g ai ha−1) herbicides applied separately. Additional experiments were conducted to (1) determine the level of resistance to glyphosate and acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors in the Connecticut-resistant (CT-Res) biotype using whole-plant dose-response bioassays, and (2) evaluate the response of the CT-Res biotype to POST herbicides commonly used in Connecticut cropping systems. Based on the effective dose required for 90% control (ED90), the CT-Res biotype was 10-fold resistant to glyphosate when compared with the Kansas-susceptible (KS-Sus) biotype. Furthermore, the CT-Res biotype was highly resistant to ALS-inhibitor herbicides; only 18% control was achieved with 2,196 g ai ha−1 imazaquin. The CT-Res biotype was also cross-resistant to other ALS-inhibitor herbicides, including chlorimuron-ethyl (13.1 g ai ha−1), halosulfuron-methyl (70 g ai ha−1), and sulfometuron-methyl (392 g ai ha−1). The CT-Res Palmer amaranth was controlled 75% to 100% at 21 d after treatment (DAT) with POST applications of 2,4-D (386 g ae ha−1), carfentrazone-ethyl (34 g ai ha−1), clopyralid (280 g ae ha−1), dicamba (280 g ae ha−1), glufosinate (595 g ai ha−1), lactofen (220 g ai ha−1), oxyfluorfen (1,121g ai ha−1), and mesotrione (105 g ai ha−1) herbicides. Atrazine (2,240 g ai ha−1) controlled the CT-Res biotype only 52%, suggesting the biotype is resistant to this herbicide as well. Here we report the first case of Palmer amaranth from Connecticut with multiple resistance to glyphosate and ALS inhibitors. Growers should proactively use all available weed control tactics, including the use of effective PRE and alternative POST herbicides (tested in this study), for effective control of the CT-Res biotype.
Introduction and rapid adoption of dicamba-resistant (DR) soybean led to an increase of postemergent applications of dicamba. This resulted in a widespread increase in nontarget dicamba injury to non-DR soybean in 2017. Field studies were conducted in Manhattan, KS, in 2018 and 2019 and in Ottawa, KS, in 2019 to investigate the injury and yield response of soybean varieties with varying herbicide-resistance traits and maturity groups when exposed to dicamba. Four varieties were tested: ‘Credenz 3841LL’ (glufosinate resistant), ‘Credenz 4748LL’ (glufosinate resistant), ‘Asgrow AG4135RR2Y’ (glyphosate resistant), and ‘Stine 40BA02’ (glyphosate and isoxaflutole resistant), abbreviated as CR3841, CR4748, AG4135, and ST40B, respectively. Soybeans were treated with 5.6 g ae ha−1 of dicamba at V3 and R1 stages. Percent soybean injury, soybean height, soybean yield and yield components, and injury to offspring were evaluated. Four weeks after treatment (WAT) at V3, the greatest injury was observed in AG4135 and ST40B. Dicamba application at R1 resulted in the greatest injury to ST40B both 4 WAT and at senescence. Minimal injury was observed in all varieties treated at V3 at senescence and yield loss was 5% or less. Dicamba application at R1 resulted in 19 to 34% yield loss, with the least yield loss in CR4748, and the greatest in ST40B. Varieties with greater injury at senescence generally yielded less than other varieties.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed that can emerge throughout the soybean growing season in Nebraska and several other regions of the United States. Late-emerging Palmer amaranth plants can produce seeds, thus replenishing the soil seedbank. The objectives of this study were to evaluate single or sequential applications of labeled POST herbicides such as acifluorfen, dicamba, a fomesafen and fluthiacet-methyl premix, glyphosate, and lactofen on GR Palmer amaranth control, density, biomass, seed production, and seed viability, as well as grain yield of dicamba- and glyphosate-resistant (DGR) soybean. Field experiments were conducted in a grower’s field infested with GR Palmer amaranth near Carleton, NE, in 2018 and 2019, with no PRE herbicide applied. Acifluorfen, dicamba, a premix of fomesafen and fluthiacet-methyl, glyphosate, or lactofen were applied POST in single or sequential applications between the V4 and R6 soybean growth stages, with timings based on product labels. Dicamba applied at V4 or in sequential applications at V4 followed by R1 or R3 controlled GR Palmer amaranth 91% to 100% at soybean harvest, reduced Palmer amaranth density to as low as 2 or fewer plants m−2, reduced seed production to 557 to 2,911 seeds per female plant, and resulted in the highest soybean yield during both years of the study. Sequential applications of acifluorfen, fomesafen and fluthiacet premix, or lactofen were not as effective as dicamba for GR Palmer amaranth control; however, they reduced seed production similar to dicamba. On the basis of the results of this study, we conclude that dicamba was effective for controlling GR Palmer amaranth and reduced density, biomass, and seed production without DGR soybean injury. Herbicides evaluated in this study had no effect on Palmer amaranth seed viability.
Kochia accessions (designated as KS-4A and KS-4H) collected from a corn field near Garden City, KS, have previously shown multiple resistance to glyphosate, dicamba, and fluroxypyr. These accessions were also suspected as being resistant to photosystem II (PS II) inhibitors. The main objectives of this research were to 1) confirm the coexistence of cross-resistance to PS II inhibitors (atrazine and metribuzin) applied PRE and POST, 2) investigate the underlying mechanism of PS II-inhibitor resistance, and 3) determine the effectiveness of alternative POST herbicides for control of these multiple herbicide–resistant (MHR) kochia accessions. Results from dose-response experiments revealed that the KS-4A and KS-4H kochia accessions were 23-fold to 48-fold resistant to PRE- and POST-applied atrazine and 13-fold to 18-fold resistant to POST-applied metribuzin compared to a known susceptible kochia accession (KS-SUS). Both accessions also showed putative resistance to PRE-applied metribuzin that needs to be confirmed. Sequence analyses of the psbA gene further revealed that all samples from the KS-4A and KS-4H kochia accessions had a Ser264Gly point mutation. A pretreatment with malathion followed by a POST application of atrazine at 1,120 g ha−1 or metribuzin at 630 g ha−1 did not reverse the resistance phenotypes of these MHR accessions. In a separate greenhouse study, alternative POST herbicides, including bicyclopyrone + bromoxynil; bromoxynil + pyrasulfotole; paraquat alone or in combination with atrazine, metribuzin, 2,4-D, or saflufenacil; and saflufenacil alone or in combination with 2,4-D effectively controlled the KS-4H accession (≥97% injury). To our knowledge, this research reports the first case of kochia accessions with cross-resistance to PRE-applied atrazine and POST-applied metribuzin. Growers should adopt diversified weed control strategies, including the use of competitive crops, cover crops, targeted tillage, and harvest weed seed control along with effective alternative PRE and POST herbicides with multiple sites of action to control MHR kochia seedbanks on their production fields.
Field experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 at Kansas State University Ashland Bottoms (KSU-AB) research farm near Manhattan, KS, and Kansas State University Agricultural Research Center (KSU-ARC) near Hays, KS, to determine the effectiveness of various PRE-applied herbicide premixes and tank mixtures alone or followed by (fb) an early POST (EPOST) treatment of glyphosate + dicamba for controlling glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth in glyphosate/dicamba-resistant (GDR) soybean. In experiment 1, PRE-applied sulfentrazone + S-metolachlor, saflufenacil + imazethapyr + pyroxasulfone, chlorimuron + flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, and metribuzin + flumioxazin + imazethapyr provided 85% to 94% end-of-season control of GR Palmer amaranth across both sites. In comparison, Palmer amaranth control ranged from 63% to 87% at final evaluation with PRE-applied pyroxasulfone + sulfentrazone, pyroxasulfone + sulfentrazone plus metribuzin, pyroxasulfone + sulfentrazone plus carfentrazone + sulfentrazone, and sulfentrazone + metribuzin at the KSU-ARC site in experiment 2. All PRE fb EPOST (i.e., two-pass) programs provided near-complete (98% to 100%) control of GR Palmer amaranth at both sites. PRE-alone programs reduced Palmer amaranth shoot biomass by 35% to 76% in experiment 1 at both sites, whereas all two-pass programs prevented Palmer amaranth biomass production. No differences in soybean yields were observed among tested programs in experiment 1 at KSU-ARC site; however, PRE-alone sulfentrazone + S-metolachlor, saflufenacil + imazethapyr + pyroxasulfone, and chlorimuron + flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone had lower grain yield (average, 4,342 kg ha−1) compared with the top yielding (4,832 kg ha−1) treatment at the KSU-AB site. PRE-applied sulfentrazone + metribuzin had a lower soybean yield (1,776 kg ha−1) compared with all other programs in experiment 2 at the KSU-ARC site. These results suggest growers should proactively adopt effective PRE-applied premixes fb EPOST programs evaluated in this study to reduce selection pressure from multiple POST dicamba applications for GR Palmer amaranth control in GDR soybean.
The widespread evolution of herbicide resistance in weed populations has become an increasing concern for no-tillage (NT) growers in semiarid regions of the U.S. Great Plains. Lack of cost-effective and alternative new herbicide sites of action further exacerbates the problem of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds and threatens the long-term sustainability of prevailing cropping systems in the region. A recent decline in commodity prices and increasing herbicide costs to manage HR weeds has spurred research efforts to build a strong rationale for developing ecologically based integrated weed management (IWM) strategies in the U.S. Great Plains. Integration of cover crops (CCs) in NT dryland production systems potentially offers several ecosystem services, including weed control, soil health improvement, decline in selective pest pressure, and overall reduction in pest management inputs. This review article aims to document the role of CCs for IWM, with emphasis on exploring emerging weed issues; ecological, economic, and agronomic benefits of growing CCs; and constraints preventing adoption of CCs in NT cropping systems in the semiarid Great Plains. We attempt to focus on changes in weed management practices, their long-term impacts on weed seedbanks, weed shifts, and herbicide-resistance evolution in the most common weed species in the region. We also highlight current knowledge gaps and propose new research priorities based on an improved understanding of CC management strategies that will ultimately aid in achieving sustainable weed management goals and preserving natural resources in water-limited environments.
Evolution of kochia resistance to glyphosate and dicamba is a concern for growers in the US Great Plains. An increasing use of glyphosate and dicamba with the widespread adoption of glyphosate/dicamba-resistant (GDR) soybean in recent years may warrant greater attention. Long-term stewardship of this new stacked-trait technology will require the implementation of diverse weed control strategies, such as the use of soil-residual herbicides (PRE) aimed at effective control of GDR kochia. Field experiments were conducted in Huntley, MT, in 2017 and 2018, and Hays, KS, in 2018 to determine the effectiveness of various PRE herbicides applied alone or followed by (fb) a POST treatment of glyphosate plus dicamba for controlling GDR kochia in GDR soybean. Among PRE herbicides tested, sulfentrazone provided complete (100%), season-long control of GDR kochia at both sites. In addition, PRE fb POST programs tested in this study brought 71% to 100% control of GDR kochia throughout the season at both sites. Pyroxasulfone applied PRE resulted in 57% to 70% control across sites at 9 to 10 wk after PRE (WAPRE). However, mixing dicamba with pyroxasulfone improved control up to 25% at both sites. Kochia plants surviving pyroxasulfone applied PRE alone produced 2,530 seeds m−2 compared with pyroxasulfone + dicamba (230 seeds m−2) at the Montana site. No differences in soybean grain yields were observed with PRE alone or PRE fb POST treatments at the Montana site; however, dicamba, pyroxasulfone, and pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P applied PRE brought lower grain yield (1,150 kg ha−1) compared to all other tested programs at the Kansas site. In conclusion, effective PRE or PRE fb POST (two-pass) programs tested in this research should be proactively utilized by the growers to manage GDR kochia in GDR soybean.
Dicamba-resistant (DR) kochia is an increasing concern for growers in the US Great Plains, including Kansas. Greenhouse and field experiments (Garden City and Tribune, KS, in the 2014 to 2015 growing season) were conducted to characterize the dicamba resistance levels in two recently evolved DR kochia accessions collected from fallow fields (wheat–sorghum–fallow rotation) near Hays, KS, and to determine the effectiveness of various PRE herbicide tank mixtures applied in fall or spring prior to the fallow year. Dicamba dose–response studies indicated that the KS-110 and KS-113 accessions had 5- to 8-fold resistance to dicamba, respectively, relative to a dicamba-susceptible (DS) accession. In separate field studies, atrazine-based PRE herbicide tank mixtures, dicamba + pendimethalin + sulfentrazone, and metribuzin + sulfentrazone when applied in the spring had excellent kochia control (85% to 95%) for 3 to 4 mo at the Garden City and Tribune sites. In contrast, kochia control with those PRE herbicide tank mixtures when applied in the fall did not exceed 79% at the later evaluation dates. In conclusion, the tested kochia accessions from western Kansas had evolved moderate to high levels of resistance to dicamba. Growers should utilize these effective PRE herbicide tank mixtures (multiple sites of action) in early spring to manage kochia seed bank during the summer fallow phase of this 3-yr crop rotation (wheat–corn/sorghum–fallow) in the Central Great Plains.
Evolution and rapid spread of herbicide-resistant (HR) kochia has become a significant challenge for growers in the U.S. Great Plains. The main objectives of this research were to confirm and characterize the response of putative auxinic HR (Aux-HR) kochia accessions (designated as KS-4A, KS-4D, KS-4H, KS-10A, KS-10-G, and KS-10H) collected from two different corn fields near Garden City, KS, to dicamba and fluroxypyr and to determine the EPSPS gene copy number to detect whether those accessions were also resistant to glyphosate. Single-dose experiments indicated that putative Aux-HR kochia accessions had 78% to 100% and 85% to 100% survivors when treated with dicamba (560 g ae ha−1) and fluroxypyr (235 g ae ha−1), respectively. Whole-plant dicamba dose–response studies revealed that the selected Aux-HR accessions had 2.9- to 15.1- and 3.1- to 9.4-fold resistance to dicamba relative to two susceptible accessions (MT-SUS and KS-SUS). In a separate fluroxypyr dose–response experiment, the selected Aux-HR accessions also exhibited 3.8- to 7.3- and 3.0- to 8.6-fold resistance to fluroxypyr on the basis of shoot fresh and dry weight responses, respectively. The confirmed Aux-HR kochia accessions also had 3 to 13 EPSPS gene copies relative to MT-SUS and KS-SUS accessions (each with 1 EPSPS gene copy). These results suggest that the putative Aux-HR kochia accessions from Kansas had developed moderate to high levels of cross-resistance to dicamba and fluroxypyr and low to high levels of resistance to glyphosate. This is the first confirmation of kochia accessions with cross-resistance to dicamba and fluroxypyr in Kansas. Growers should use diverse kochia control programs, including the proper use of dicamba and fluroxypyr stewardship, use of cover crops, occasional tillage, diversified crop rotations, and alternative effective herbicides to prevent further evolution and spread of Aux-HR kochia on their fields.
Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott] is a problematic annual broadleaf weed species in the North American Great Plains. Bassia scoparia inherits unique biological characteristics that contribute to its propensity to evolve herbicide resistance. Evolution of glyphosate resistance in B. scoparia has become a serious threat to the major cropping systems and soil conservation practices in the region. Bassia scoparia populations with resistance to four different herbicide sites of action are a concern for growers. The widespread occurrence of multiple herbicide–resistant (HR) B. scoparia across the North American Great Plains has renewed research efforts to devise integrated weed management strategies beyond herbicide use. In this review, we aim to compile and document the growing body of literature on HR B. scoparia with emphasis on herbicide-resistance evolutionary dynamics, distribution, mechanisms of evolved resistance, agronomic impacts, and current/future weed management technologies. We focused on ecologically based, non-herbicidal strategies such as diverse crop rotations comprising winter cereals and perennial forages, enhanced crop competition, cover crops, harvest weed seed control (HWSC), and tillage to manage HR B. scoparia seedbanks. Remote sensing using hyperspectral imaging and other sensor-based technologies would be valuable for early detection and rapid response and site-specific herbicide resistance management. We propose research priorities based on an improved understanding of the biology, genetic diversity, and plasticity of this weed that will aid in preserving existing herbicide resources and designing sustainable, integrated HR B. scoparia mitigation plans.
Dicamba-resistant (DR) kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott] has been reported in six U.S. states and one Canadian province. To develop effective B. scoparia control tactics, it is necessary to understand the seed germination pattern of DR B. scoparia. The objective of this study was to compare the germination characteristics of DR versus dicamba-susceptible (DS) B. scoparia populations from Montana and Kansas under constant (5 to 35 C) and/or alternating temperatures (5/10 to 30/35 C). DR B. scoparia lines from Montana were generated after three generations of recurrent selection of field-collected populations with dicamba. Seeds of DR or DS lines from Kansas were obtained after one generation of restricted self-pollination. DR B. scoparia lines from both Montana and Kansas had a lower maximum cumulative germination than the DS lines across all temperature treatments. A majority of DR B. scoparia lines from Montana showed a temperature-mediated seed germination response, with a higher thermal requirement (30 to 35 C or 25/30 to 30/35 C) to attain the maximum cumulative germination compared with DS lines. Germination rates at 5 to 30 C were lower for DR versus DS B. scoparia lines from Kansas. All DR lines from Montana took more time than DS lines to initiate germination at 5 and 10 C or 5/10 and 20/25 C. Similarly, there was a delayed onset of germination of the DR versus DS line from Kansas at 5, 10, 15, and 20 C. Furthermore, the DR B. scoparia from both Kansas and Montana had a slower germination pattern relative to the DS B. scoparia. Diversified crop rotations using winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), fall-sown cover crops, or early-spring planted crops (e.g., wheat or barley [Hordeum vulgare L.]) that are competitive against late-emerging B. scoparia in conjunction with strategic tillage and late-season weed control tactics should be used to facilitate depletion of DR B. scoparia seedbanks.
Giant ragweed is one of the most competitive annual broadleaf weeds in corn and soybean crop production systems in the United States and eastern Canada. Management of giant ragweed has become difficult due to the evolution of resistance to glyphosate and/or acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor herbicides and giant ragweed’s ability to emerge late in the season, specifically in the eastern Corn Belt. Late-season herbicide application may reduce seed production of weed species; however, information is not available about late-season herbicide applications on giant ragweed seed production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of single or sequential late-season applications of 2,4-D, dicamba, glyphosate, and glufosinate on inflorescence injury and seed production of glyphosate-resistant (GR) giant ragweed under greenhouse and field conditions (bare ground study). Single and sequential applications of glufosinate resulted in as much as 59 and 60% injury to giant ragweed inflorescence and as much as 78 and 75% reduction in seed production, respectively, under field and greenhouse conditions. In contrast, single or sequential applications of 2,4-D or dicamba resulted in ≥ 96% inflorescence injury and reduction in seed production in the field as well as in greenhouse studies. The results indicated that 2,4-D or dicamba are effective options for reducing seed production of glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed even if applied late in the season. Targeting weed seed production to decrease the soil seedbank will potentially be an effective strategy for an integrated management of GR giant ragweed.