To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To examine the parental food consumption and diet quality and its associations with children’s consumption in families at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus across Europe. Also, to compare food frequency consumption among parents and children from high-risk families to the European Dietary guidelines/recommendations.
Cross-sectional study using Feel4diabetes FFQ.
Families completed FFQ and anthropometric measures were obtained. Linear regression analyses were applied to investigate the relations between parental food consumption and diet quality and their children’s food consumption after consideration of potential confounders.
2095 European families (74·6 % mothers, 50·9 % girls). The participants included parent and one child, aged 6–8 years.
Parental food consumption was significantly associated with children’s intake from the same food groups among boys and girls. Most parents and children showed under-consumption of healthy foods according to the European Dietary Guidelines. Parental diet quality was positively associated with children’s intake of ‘fruit’ (boys: β = 0·233, P < 0·001; girls: β = 0·134, P < 0·05) and ‘vegetables’ (boys: β = 0·177, P < 0·01; girls: β = 0·234, P < 0·001) and inversely associated with their ‘snacks’ consumption (boys: β = –0·143, P < 0·05; girls: β = –0·186, P < 0·01).
The present study suggests an association between parental food consumption and diet quality and children’s food intake. More in-depth studies and lifestyle interventions that include both parents and children are therefore recommended for future research.
This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of food parenting practices (FPP), including home availability of different types of foods and drinks, parental modelling of fruit intake, permissiveness and the use of food as a reward in the relationship between parental education and dietary intake in European children.
Single mediation analyses were conducted to explore whether FPP explain associations between parents’ educational level and children’s dietary intake measured by a parent-reported FFQ.
Six European countries.
Parent–child dyads (n 6705, 50·7 % girls, 88·8 % mothers) from the Feel4Diabetes-study.
Children aged 8·15 ± 0·96 years were included. Parental education was associated with children’s higher intake of water, fruits and vegetables and lower intake of sugar-rich foods and savoury snacks. All FPP explained the associations between parental education and dietary intake to a greater or lesser extent. Specifically, home availability of soft drinks explained 59·3 % of the association between parental education and sugar-rich food intake. Home availability of fruits and vegetables was the strongest mediators in the association between parental education and fruit and vegetable consumption (77·3 % and 51·5 %, respectively). Regarding savoury snacks, home availability of salty snacks and soft drinks was the strongest mediators (27·6 % and 20·8 %, respectively).
FPP mediate the associations between parental education and children’s dietary intake. This study highlights the importance of addressing FPP in future interventions targeting low-educated populations.
Adoption of healthy dietary and snacking habits could support optimum physical and mental development in children as they define health in adulthood. This study assessed parameters associated with children’s snacking such as food home availability, parenting practices, and parents’ health beliefs. In this cross-sectional study 12 039 children, 49·4% boys 5–12 years, participating in the European Feel4Diabetes-Study were included. Children’s weekly consumption of sweets and salty snacks, home availability of snacks, food parenting practices, and health beliefs were assessed via questionnaires. Logistic regression was applied to explore associations of a) home availability of snacks, b) food parenting practices (permissiveness and rewarding with snacks) and c) parent’s opinions on deterministic health beliefs with children’s consumption of sweets and salty snacks. Results showed that home availability (sweets: ORadj: 4·76, 95 % CI: 4·32, 5·23; salty snacks: ORadj: 6·56, 95 % CI: 5·64, 7·61), allowing to consume (sweets: ORadj: 3·29, 95 % CI: 2·95, 3·67; salty snacks: ORadj: 3·41, 95 % CI: 2·98, 3·90) and rewarding with sweets/salty snacks (sweets: ORadj: 2·69, 95 % CI: 2·23, 3·24; salty snacks: ORadj: 4·34, 95 % CI: 3·57, 5·28) ‘sometimes/or less frequently’ compared to ‘always/or often’ were associated with lower weekly consumption of sweets and snacks. Parents’ disagreement compared to agreement with deterministic health beliefs and inattentive eating were associated with lower consumption of salty snacks and sweets in children. Overall, the findings of this study indicate that attempts to promote healthy snacking habits in children should aim to improve parental dietary habits, food parenting practices, health beliefs, and reducing home availability of unhealthy foods and snacks.
To examine the effect of the intervention implemented in the ToyBox-study on changes observed in age- and sex-specific BMI percentile and investigate the role of perinatal factors, parental perceptions and characteristics on this change.
A multicomponent, kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention with a cluster-randomised design. A standardised protocol was used to measure children’s body weight and height. Information was also collected from parents/caregivers via the use of validated questionnaires. Linear mixed effect models with random intercept for country, socio-economic status and school were used.
Selected preschools within the provinces of Oost-Flanders and West-Flanders (Belgium), Varna (Bulgaria), Bavaria (Germany), Attica (Greece), Mazowieckie (Poland) and Zaragoza (Spain).
A sample of 6268 preschoolers aged 3·5–5·5 years (51·9 % boys).
There was no intervention effect on the change in children’s BMI percentile. However, parents’ underestimation of their children’s actual weight status, parental overweight and mothers’ pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity were found to be significantly and independently associated with increases in children’s BMI percentile in multivariate modelling.
As part of a wide public health initiative or as part of a counseling intervention programme, it is important to assist parents/caregivers to correctly perceive their own and their children’s weight status. Recognition of excessive weight by parents/caregivers can increase their readiness to change and as such facilitate higher adherence to favourable behavioural changes within the family.
Introduction: Childhood obesity is rising in all countries. Dietary habits are modifiable factors which develop early in life. During growth, several factors, such as peer- influence and food availability, determine the development of food preferences and eating behaviour. Parents play also a key role model by influencing their own food intake.
Objetives: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of parental role modelling, as predictor of fruits and vegetables intake in European pre-schoolers.
Methods: The present study included a sample of 6633 preschool children (51.9% boys) from six European centres (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain), 3.5 to 5.5 years of age, participating in the ToyBox-study. Data on parental role modelling related with their own fruits and vegetables intake (portions/day) and children's fruits and vegetables intake (portions/day) were collected via standardized proxy-administered questionnaires. Linear regression model was used to assess this association. The adjusted model included socioeconomic status and weight status.
Results: In the unadjusted model, boys whose parents consumed fruits, showed a mean intake of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.08–0.11; p ≤ 0.001) portions of fruits more than the boys whose parents did not consume fruits. Also, girls whose parents consumed fruits, had intake of 0.10 (95% CI: 0.08–0.12; p ≤ 0.001) portions of fruits more than the girls whose parents did not consume fruits.
Moreover, boys whose parents consumed vegetables, showed a mean intake of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.07–0.11; p ≤ 0.001) portions of vegetables more than the boys whose parents did not consume vegetables. Also, girls whose parents consumed fruits, had intake of 0.11 (95% CI: 0.09–0.13; p ≤ 0.001) portions of vegetables more than the girls whose parents did not consume vegetables.
Finally, parental role related with fruits consumption explained 19.3% of fruits intake in European pre-schoolers and the 17.8% of vegetables intake in boys and 21.9% of vegetable intake in girls taking into consideration the potential effect of socioeconomic status of the family and the weight status of the children.
Conclusions: Parental role model of fruit intake has moderate effect on the pre-schooler's dietary intake. However, home environment characteristics such as family rules or availability and accessibility of foods should be considered as potential factors related to food intake in pre-schoolers.
The present study aimed to explore the mediating role of family-related determinants on the effects of the ToyBox-intervention on pre-school children’s consumption of healthy and unhealthy snacks.
The ToyBox-intervention was a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention with a cluster-randomized design, aiming to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours to prevent obesity at pre-school age.
Kindergartens (n 309) in six European countries.
A total of 6290 pre-schoolers and their families participated in the ToyBox-intervention in 2012–2013 and data from 5212 pre-schoolers/families were included in the current analyses.
Even though the total effect of the ToyBox-intervention on healthy and unhealthy snacking was not significant, the ToyBox-intervention significantly improved parental rule setting on children’s unhealthy snack consumption (i.e. restriction of snacking while watching television and permission only at certain occasions) and parental consumption of unhealthy snacks, while it increased parental knowledge on snacking recommendations. Regarding healthy snacking, the ToyBox-intervention improved children’s attitude towards fruit and vegetables (F&V). All previously mentioned family-related determinants mediated the intervention effects on pre-schoolers’ consumption of healthy and unhealthy snacks. Almost all family-related determinants examined in the study were independently associated with pre-schoolers’ consumption of healthy and unhealthy snacks.
The intervention was effective in improving relevant family-related determinants. Interventions aiming to promote F&V consumption and limit the consumption of unhealthy snacks in pre-schoolers should target on these mediators, but also identify new family-, school- or peer-related determinants, to enhance their effectiveness.
To describe the design of the Feel4Diabetes-intervention and the baseline characteristics of the study sample.
School- and community-based intervention with cluster-randomized design, aiming to promote healthy lifestyle and tackle obesity and obesity-related metabolic risk factors for the prevention of type 2 diabetes among families from vulnerable population groups. The intervention was implemented in 2016–2018 and included: (i) the ‘all-families’ component, provided to all children and their families via a school- and community-based intervention; and (ii) an additional component, the ‘high-risk families’ component, provided to high-risk families for diabetes as identified with a discrete manner by the FINDRISC questionnaire, which comprised seven counselling sessions (2016–2017) and a text-messaging intervention (2017–2018) delivered by trained health professionals in out-of-school settings. Although the intervention was adjusted to local needs and contextual circumstances, standardized protocols and procedures were used across all countries for the process, impact, outcome and cost-effectiveness evaluation of the intervention.
Primary schools and municipalities in six European countries.
Families (primary-school children, their parents and grandparents) were recruited from the overall population in low/middle-income countries (Bulgaria, Hungary), from low socio-economic areas in high-income countries (Belgium, Finland) and from countries under austerity measures (Greece, Spain).
The Feel4Diabetes-intervention reached 30 309 families from 236 primary schools. In total, 20 442 families were screened and 12 193 ‘all families’ and 2230 ‘high-risk families’ were measured at baseline.
The Feel4Diabetes-intervention is expected to provide evidence-based results and key learnings that could guide the design and scaling-up of affordable and potentially cost-effective population-based interventions for the prevention of type 2 diabetes.
Energy balance-related behaviours (EBRB) are established in childhood and seem to persist through to adulthood. A lower parental educational level was associated with unhealthy behavioural patterns. The aim of the study is to identify clusters of EBRB and examine their association with preschool children’s BMI and maternal, paternal and parental education. A subsample of the ToyBox study (n 5387) conducted in six European countries was used. Six behavioural clusters (‘healthy diet and low activity’, ‘active’, ‘healthy lifestyle’, ‘high water and screen time; low fruits and vegetables (F&V) and physical activity (PA)’, ‘unhealthy lifestyle’ and ‘high F&V consumers’) emerged. The healthiest group characterised by high water and F&V consumption and high PA z scores (‘healthy lifestyle’) was more prevalent among preschool children with at least one medium- or higher-educated parent and showed markedly healthier trends for all the included EBRB. In the opposite, the ‘unhealthy lifestyle’ cluster (characterised by high soft drinks and screen time z scores, and low water, F&V and PA z scores) was more prevalent among children with lower parental, paternal and maternal education levels. OR identified that children with lower maternal, paternal and parental education levels were less likely to be allocated in the ‘healthy lifestyle’ cluster and more likely to be allocated in the ‘unhealthy lifestyle’ cluster. The ‘unhealthy lifestyle’ cluster was more prevalent among children with parents in lower parental educational levels and children who were obese. Therefore, parental educational level is one of the key factors that should be considered when developing childhood obesity prevention interventions.
To study diet quality among pre-schoolers using the Diet Quality Index (DQI) and to investigate differences according to gender, socio-economic status (SES) and overweight/obesity status.
Kindergarten-based cross-sectional survey within the ToyBox-study. A standardized protocol was used and parents/caregivers self-reported sociodemographic data and a semi-quantitative FFQ. A total DQI and its four subcomponents (diversity, quality, equilibrium and meal index) were calculated based on this FFQ. High total DQI scores indicate better diet quality than low scores. Results of the total DQI and the subcomponents were reported as percentages of maximum scores (100 %).
Kindergartens in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain).
European pre-schoolers (aged 3·5–5·5 years) and their parents/caregivers (n 7063).
The mean total DQI score was 68·3 %. Mean scores of the subcomponents were 61·7 % for diversity, 56·5 % for quality, 65·4 % for equilibrium and 89·7 % for the meal index. Pre-schoolers of lower-SES backgrounds had lower scores on the total DQI and all its subcomponents. No clear differences were found by gender and overweight status. Results differed slightly according to country.
Pre-schoolers scored low on the total DQI and especially on dietary quality, as energy-dense, low-nutritious food items were more often consumed than highly nutritious food items. Furthermore, already in pre-schoolers lower-SES mothers were less likely to provide a good diet quality and this was consistent for all four subcomponents of the total DQI. Food intake in pre-schoolers should be enhanced, especially in pre-schoolers of lower-SES backgrounds.
To study the quantity and quality of water intake from beverages among pre-schoolers and investigate associations with gender and socio-economic status (SES).
Kindergarten-based cross-sectional survey within the large-scale European ToyBox-study. A standardized protocol was used and parents/caregivers filled in sociodemographic data and a semi-quantitative FFQ.
Kindergartens in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain).
European pre-schoolers (aged 3·5–5·5 years) and their parents/caregivers (n 7051).
Mean water intake was 1051 ml/d; plain water, 547 ml/d; plain milk, 241 ml/d; other fruit juice, 104 ml/d; pure fruit juice, 59 ml/d; soft drinks, 55 ml/d; tea, 45 ml/d; sugared and chocolate milk, 37 ml/d; smoothies, 15 ml/d; and light soft drinks, 6 ml/d. Boys had a higher water intake than girls due to a higher consumption of plain water, but more importantly to the consumption of beverages of less quality. Lower-SES pre-schoolers scored better on quantity than high-SES pre-schoolers, but as a consequence of consumption of sugared beverages. Nevertheless, the associations differed by country.
The water intake from beverages did not meet the European Food Safety Authority standard of 1280 ml/d; especially in Western European countries water intake from beverages was low. The most important water sources were plain water, milk and fruit juices. Interventions aiming at a proper and sufficient water intake should focus on both quantity and quality. Messages about water and water sources should be clear for everyone and interventions should be sufficiently tailored.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.