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Hysteroscopic sterilisation (HS) is a permanent method of contraception and is only suitable for women who no longer desire fertility. The method works by preventing fertilisation of the egg by permanently blocking the passage of sperm through the fallopian tubes. This is achieved by placing occlusive micro-inserts in the proximal section of each fallopian tubal lumen using transcervical hysteroscopy.
A safe, simple and highly effective transcervical sterilisation approach has long been sought. In 1878, Kocks attempted to blindly occlude the proximal segment of each fallopian tube by transcervical insertion of electrodes. In 1927, Mickulicz-Radecki and Freund suggested the use of a hysteroscope for the purpose of female sterilisation. In 1934, Schroeder performed the transcervical hysteroscopic sterilisation using electrocoagulation. Since then, various destructive techniques involving intratubal injection of sclerosing agents such as quinacrine, tissue adhesives or cryosurgery, and mechanical tubal occlusive techniques involving placement of various plugs or devices at the level of the tubal ostium, have been explored.
This paper reports an integration of dual band microstrip antenna with thin film amorphous silicon solar cell which creates a wearable system to harvest microwave energy. The multiple layers in the encapsulation of the thin film solar cell are used as a substrate for microstrip antenna. The rectifier and matching circuit are designed on cotton jeans material and the whole system is mechanically supported by the foam of 5 mm thick. The performance of the antenna is studied for the mechanical bending condition. The device has maintained good power conversion efficiency. The efficiency of the voltage doubler is tested by varying radio frequency power levels from −30 to10 dBm. The voltage doubler conversion efficiency at 1.85 and 2.45 GHz are 58 and 43%, respectively, for a load of 7.5 kΩ for an input power level of −5 dBm.
Using longitudinal data from the first and second waves of the Young Lives Study (YLS) in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam, conducted in 2002 and 2006–07, and a repeated measures mixed model, this study examined the effect of the use of solid fuels for cooking on childhood stunting among children aged 5–76 months. The analysis showed that in all four populations, the average height-for-age z-score (HAZ score) was much lower among children living in households using solid fuels than among children in households using cleaner fuels for cooking. The average HAZ score was lower among children living in households that used solid fuels in both waves of the YLS compared with those whose households used solid fuels in only one of the two waves. A significant reduction was noted in the average HAZ score between the two waves in all countries except Ethiopia. The results of the repeated measures mixed model suggest that household use of solid fuels was significantly associated with lower HAZ scores in all populations, except Ethiopia. The findings also indicate that the reduction in the HAZ scores between waves 1 and 2 was not statistically significant by the type of cooking fuel after controlling for potential confounding factors. The study provides further evidence of a strong association between household use of solid fuels and childhood stunting in low- and middle-income countries using longitudinal data. The findings highlight the need to reduce exposure to smoke from the combustion of solid fuels, by shifting households to cleaner cooking fuels, where feasible, by providing cooking stoves with improved combustion of solid fuels and improved venting, and by designing and implementing public information campaigns to inform people about the health risks of exposure to cooking smoke.
The effects of silicon incorporation on the in vitro and in vivo properties of magnesium phosphate (MgP) bioceramics were studied. Samples were prepared by conventional solid state synthesis method. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) analysis showed that Si doping reduces degradability of MgP. In vitro studies have shown that MG63 cells can attach and proliferate on MgP samples. Live/dead imaging showed that MgP–0.5Si sample had highest cell proliferation, which was also quantitatively confirmed by alamar blue assay. In vivo biocompatibility of MgP ceramics was assessed after implantation in rabbit model. Detailed µ-CT analysis showed new bone tissue formation around the implant after 30 and 90 days. MgP–0.5Si ceramics had 84% bone regeneration compared with 56% for pure MgP ceramics, as confirmed by oxytetracycline labeling. Our finding suggests that Si doping can alter physicochemical properties of MgP ceramics and promotes osseointegration, which can be a useful choice for bone tissue engineering.
FeCoNi(Mn–Si)x (x = 0.5, 0.75, 1.0) high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were successfully synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA), and the effect of Mn and Si in the ferromagnetic alloys on crystal structure and magnetic behavior was thoroughly investigated. XRD, SEM, and TEM were used to investigate the effect of Mn and Si content on the structure of HEAs. The high Mn and Si contents change the structure from the BCC phase to FCC phase. The evolution of surface morphology was discussed on the basis of MA time and content of Mn and Si. The magnetic hysteresis curve confirmed the highest magnetic saturation (Ms) value of 134.21 emu/g for FeCoNi(Mn–Si)1.0 alloy and an appreciably low coercivity (Hc) of 98.07 Oe for FeCoNi(Mn–Si)0.5 alloy. The finite element method (FEM), using COMSOL Multiphysics software, has been used for determining the magnetic flux density (B) on the surface and at the center of the transformer core to determine the performance of the proposed HEAs.
A novel series of nanocrystalline AlCuCrFeMnWx (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5) high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were synthesized by mechanical alloying followed by spark plasma sintering. The phase evolution of the current HEAs was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. The XRD of the AlCuCrFeMn sintered HEA shows evolution of ordered B2 phase (AlFe type), sigma phase (Cr rich), and FeMn phase. AlCuCrFeMnWx (x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 mol) shows formation of ordered B2 phases, sigma phases, FeMn phases, and BCC phases. Micro-hardness of the AlCuCrFeMnWx samples was measured by Vickers microindentation and the maximum value observed is 780 ± 12 HV. As the tungsten content increases, the fracture strength under compression increases from 1010 to 1510 MPa. Thermodynamic parameters of present alloys confirm the crystalline phase formation, and finally structure–property relationship was proposed by conventional strengthening mechanisms.
This study aims to investigate the sliding wear behavior of Al0.4FeCrNiCox (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mol) high-entropy alloys (HEAs) under oil lubricating conditions at room temperature. Phase and microstructural characterizations of HEAs are performed by utilizing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The compressive yield strength of Al0.4FeCrNiCox (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mol) HEAs is observed to decrease from 1169.35 to 257.63 MPa. Plastic deformation up to 75% is achieved in the case of Al0.4FeCrNiCox=1 HEA. The microhardness of HEA samples is found to decrease from 377 to 199 HV after the addition of cobalt content from x = 0 to 1.0 mol. Thermal analysis is performed using a differential scanning calorimeter. It is confirmed that Al0.4FeCrNiCox (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mol) HEAs do not undergo any phase change up to 1000 °C. The specific wear rate of Al0.4FeCrNiCox=1 HEA is observed to be highest in all wear conditions. The worn surfaces were analyzed by SEM with attached energy-dispersive spectroscopy, 3D profiling, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).
This manuscript aims at synthesizing Al2O3-de-ionized water nanofluid and constructing a practical design of self-cooling device that does not require any external power input. Crystalline phase of powder was confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) showed the various functional groups and absorption bands and average particle size was calculated to be 58.608 nm by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) annealed at 900K. Experimental investigations were carried out to determine the effect of volume fraction of Al2O3 nanoparticles in the nanofluid on the rate of heat transfer from heat load to heat sink. Temperature of heat load was taken as 80° C. According to our results, cooling by 15°C, 13°C and 12°C was attained when volume fraction of nanoparticles was 1.5%, 1% and 0.5% respectively. The thermal conductivity was also measured and found to be increasing with the concentration of nanoparticles in nanofluid. Hence, indicating the use of nanofluids with suitable concentration in various cooling applications.
Nano-sized BiFeO3 were synthesized by sol-gel auto combustion method and report the effect of different annealing temperature (400 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C) on phase formation, morphology, magnetic and dielectric properties of synthesized bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) nanoparticles. The phase formation of BFO nanoparticles were confirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern. Further, significant increment in particle size with increasing annealing temperature was estimated by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM). Magnetization curve showed the soft ferromagnetic behavior of the samples annealed at 400 OC and 500 OC that was explained on the basis of disturbance of spiral modulated long range antiferromagnetic order of bulk BFO. Dielectric response revealed decrease in dielectric constant with increasing annealing temperature. BFO is a room-temperature multiferroic material so it is potential candidate for various applications viz. Water waste treatment, gas sensors and photovoltaic cells in rural areas.
Nitinol, being a shape memory and super elastic alloy, is used in medical industry. Surface modification of nitinol helps to reduce the nickel ion leaching in physiological environment. The purpose of this study is to modify the nitinol surface by the silanization technique and to conduct a comparative investigation with the bare nitinol in the aspect of leaching of nickel ion, hemocompatibility, and in vivo animal response. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies confirmed the addition of organofunctional alkoxysilane molecules through the silanization process. The histological study showed the presence of adequate number of osteoblasts in silanized nitinol. The fluorochrome labeling study depicted more new bone formation (8 and 21% higher) in silanized nitinol specimens than bare one at one and three months postoperatively. Radiology and SEM study also proved the better performance of silanized samples. The cumulative in vivo results indicate its suitability as the potential bioimplant in various orthopedic surgical uses.
A total of 326 pearl millet accessions selected for fodder traits from the world collection at ICRISAT genebank, India were evaluated in rainy, postrainy and summer seasons to identify promising sources for fodder yield. In rainy season, majority of accessions grew significantly tall, produced thick stems, long and broad leaves compared with postrainy and summer seasons. Total tillers per plant were significantly more in rainy and summer seasons than in postrainy season. Significant (P = 0.05) positive correlations were observed among all traits in all seasons except total tillers, which showed significant negative correlation with all other traits but for a few cases. Accessions of cluster 1 flowered early and produced more tillers per plant, while those of cluster 3 flowered late, grew tall, produced thick stems, more leaves per plant, which were long and broad. Promising sources identified include IP 11839 and IP 11840 for plant height and number of leaves per plant, IP 15710, IP 15735 and IP 15752 for stem thickness and leaf width, and IP 3628, IP 15285, IP 15288, IP 15302, IP 15342, IP 15351, IP 15290, IP 20347 and IP 20350 for total tillers per plant. Further testing of these sources of fodder traits at different locations will be very useful.
The world collection of pearl millet at ICRISAT genebank includes 19,696 landraces. Passport and characterization data of 2,929 accessions belonging to 89 named landraces originating in 15 countries of Africa was used to study the adoption pattern and genetic potential. Out of 89 named landraces under study, 71 were grown in one country, 11 in two countries, six in three countries and one in four countries. Latitude and prevailing climate at collection sites were found as the important determinants of cultivation pattern of landraces. A hierarchical cluster analysis using 12 agronomic traits resulted in five clusters. Cluster 1 for late flowering, short height in rainy season, high tillering and thin panicles; cluster 2 for early flowering; cluster 3 for stout panicles in both the seasons and larger seeds and cluster 5 for longer panicles in both seasons, were found as promising sources. IP 8957, IP 8958, IP 8964 of Iniadi landrace for short height, downy mildew and rust resistance and high seed iron and zinc contents; IP 17521 of Gnali (106.9 ppm) and IP 11523 of Idiyouwe (106.5 ppm) for high seed iron content; IP 17518 of Gnali (79.1 ppm) and IP 11535 of Iniadi (78.4 ppm) for high seed zinc content were the important sources. All accessions of Raa for high seed protein content (>15%) and those of Enele for drought tolerance, were found to be promising sources. Further evaluation of promising sources identified in this study is needed for enhanced utilization of germplasm in pearl millet improvement.
The genebank at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, India holds a collection of 542 accessions from the Caribbean and Central American (CCA) regions, of which 424 were evaluated for eight qualitative and 17 quantitative traits at ICRISAT farm. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using the scores of the first nine principal components that resulted in four clusters. The accessions of these four clusters exhibited the following good characteristics: cluster 1 had high pod-bearing length and high seed protein content; those of cluster 2 had high degree of branching, large number of pods per plant and high seed yield per plant; those of cluster 3 had long pods; and those of cluster 4 had larger seeds. In the whole collection of accessions, diversity was found to be maximum (H′ = 0.630+0.026) for plant height and minimum for tertiary branches per plant (H′ = 0.259+0.026). The highest correlation coefficient was observed between racemes per plant and pods per plant (r= 0.914) followed by between pods per plant and seed yield per plant (r= 0.744), and between shelling percentage and the harvest index (r= 0.703). In view of the poor representation of the world collection of pigeonpea (13,771 accessions) from the CCA regions, launching of collection missions in these countries has been suggested to fill gaps and increase the variability. Multi-location evaluation of the collections for agronomic traits at potential locations in the CCA regions and systematic evaluation for nutritional traits and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress could result in the identification of useful genotypes, particularly vegetable types, for use in breeding programmes to develop high-yielding cultivars as well as to release as varieties in these regions.