Milrinone is a drug frequently used for hemodynamic support in children during critical illness. Although the hemodynamic changes induced by milrinone in children may appear similar to those of adults, the physiologic contributors of these changes remain vastly unknown. A systematic review was conducted to identify studies characterising the hemodynamic effects of milrinone in children during critical illness for hemodynamic support for various medical conditions. Studies were assessed for quality and those of satisfactory quality with pre- and post-operative hemodynamics for each patient were included in the final analyses. Those not limited to children and those not limited to patients with critical illness were excluded from the final analyses. A total of six studies with 791 patients were included in the final analyses. Milrinone infusion doses ranged from 0.3 to 0.75 mcg/kg/minute with the mean infusion dose being 0.5 mcg/kg/minute. Patients whom received milrinone infusion had greater cardiac output, greater left ventricle shortening fraction, lower right ventricular systolic pressure, and lower serum lactate levels. Systolic blood pressure mean arterial blood pressure and arterial oxygen concentration did not significantly change with administration of milrinone. These results were irrespective of milrinone infusion dose, infusion duration, and study size. Milrinone was found to have several beneficial hemodynamic effects in children during critical illness when used at usual clinical doses.