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Crop losses from weed interference have a significant effect on net returns for producers. Herein, potential corn yield loss because of weed interference across the primary corn-producing regions of the United States and Canada are documented. Yield-loss estimates were determined from comparative, quantitative observations of corn yields between nontreated and treatments providing greater than 95% weed control in studies conducted from 2007 to 2013. Researchers from each state and province provided data from replicated, small-plot studies from at least 3 and up to 10 individual comparisons per year, which were then averaged within a year, and then averaged over the seven years. The resulting percent yield-loss values were used to determine potential total corn yield loss in t ha−1 and bu acre−1 based on average corn yield for each state or province, as well as corn commodity price for each year as summarized by USDA-NASS (2014) and Statistics Canada (2015). Averaged across the seven years, weed interference in corn in the United States and Canada caused an average of 50% yield loss, which equates to a loss of 148 million tonnes of corn valued at over U.S.$26.7 billion annually.
A field study was conducted in 2014 and 2015 in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Tennessee, Wisconsin, and Missouri to determine the effects of tillage system and herbicide program on season-long emergence of Amaranthus species in glufosinate-resistant soybean. The tillage systems evaluated were deep tillage (fall moldboard plow followed by (fb) one pass with a field cultivator in the spring), conventional tillage (fall chisel plow fb one pass with a field cultivator in the spring), minimum tillage (one pass of a vertical tillage tool in the spring), and no-tillage (PRE application of paraquat). Each tillage system also received one of two herbicide programs; PRE application of flumioxazin (0.09 kg ai ha–1) fb a POST application of glufosinate (0.59 kg ai ha−1) plus S-metolachlor (1.39 kg ai ha–1), or POST-only applications of glufosinate (0.59 kg ha−1). The deep tillage system resulted in a 62, 67, and 73% reduction in Amaranthus emergence when compared to the conventional, minimum, and no-tillage systems, respectively. The residual herbicide program also resulted in an 87% reduction in Amaranthus species emergence compared to the POST-only program. The deep tillage system, combined with the residual program, resulted in a 97% reduction in Amaranthus species emergence when compared to the minimum tillage system combined with the POST-only program, which had the highest Amaranthus emergence. Soil cores taken prior to planting and herbicide application revealed that only 28% of the Amaranthus seed in the deep tillage system was placed within the top 5-cm of the soil profile compared to 79, 81, and 77% in the conventional, minimum, and no-tillage systems. Overall, the use of deep tillage with a residual herbicide program provided the greatest reduction in Amaranthus species emergence, thus providing a useful tool in managing herbicide-resistant Amaranthus species where appropriate.
As cases of resistance to herbicides escalate worldwide, there is increasing
demand from growers to test for weed resistance and learn how to manage it.
Scientists have developed resistance-testing protocols for numerous
herbicides and weed species. Growers need immediate answers and scientists
are faced with the daunting task of testing an increasingly large number of
samples across a variety of species and herbicides. Quick tests have been,
and continue to be, developed to address this need, although classical tests
are still the norm. Newer methods involve molecular techniques. Whereas the
classical whole-plant assay tests for resistance regardless of the
mechanism, many quick tests are limited by specificity to an herbicide, mode
of action, or mechanism of resistance. Advancing knowledge in weed biology
and genomics allows for refinements in sampling and testing protocols. Thus,
approaches in resistance testing continue to diversify, which can confound
the less experienced. We aim to help weed science practitioners resolve
questions pertaining to the testing of herbicide resistance, starting with
field surveys and sampling methods, herbicide screening methods, data
analysis, and, finally, interpretation. More specifically, this article
discusses approaches for sampling plants for resistance confirmation assays,
provides brief overviews on the biological and statistical basis for
designing and analyzing dose–response tests, and discusses alternative
procedures for rapid resistance confirmation, including molecular-based
assays. Resistance confirmation procedures often need to be slightly
modified to suit a specific situation; thus, the general requirements as
well as pros and cons of quick assays and DNA-based assays are contrasted.
Ultimately, weed resistance testing research, as well as resistance
management decisions arising from research, needs to be practical, feasible,
and grounded in science-based methods.
The growth regulator herbicides 2,4-D and dicamba are used to control glyphosate-resistant horseweed before crops are planted. With the impending release of 2,4-D–resistant and dicamba-resistant crops, use of these growth regulator herbicides postemergence will likely increase. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of various growth regulators on Indiana horseweed populations. A greenhouse dose–response study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 2,4-D ester, diglycolamine salt of dicamba, and dimethylamine salt of dicamba on control of four populations of horseweed in the greenhouse. Population 66 expressed twofold levels of tolerance to 2,4-D ester and diglycolamine salt of dicamba. Population 43 expressed an enhanced level of tolerance to diglycolamine salt of dicamba but not to the other herbicides. Diglycolamine salt of dicamba provided the best overall control of populations 3 and 34. Additionally, a field study was conducted to evaluate standard use rates of 2,4-D amine, 2,4-D ester, diglycolamine salt of dicamba, and dimethylamine salt of dicamba on control of various sized glyphosate-resistant horseweed plants. Control of plants 30 cm or less in height was 90% or greater for all four herbicides. On plants greater than 30 cm tall, diglycolamine salt of dicamba provided 97% control while 2,4-D amine provided 81% control. Diglycolamine salt of dicamba provided the highest level of control of glyphosate-resistant horseweed, followed by dimethylamine salt of dicamba, 2,4-D ester and 2,4-D amine, respectively. This research demonstrates that horseweed populations respond differently to the various salts of 2,4-D and dicamba, and it will be important to determine the appropriate use rates of each salt to control glyphosate-resistant horseweed.
Atrazine has been used for control of many weeds, primarily broadleaf weeds, in U.S. corn fields since 1957. Recently, the adoption of glyphosate-resistant corn hybrids have led to glyphosate eclipsing atrazine as the most commonly used herbicide in corn production. However, the evolution and spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds is a major concern. Atrazine use in Wisconsin is prohibited in 102 areas encompassing 0.49 million ha where total chlorinated residues were found in drinking water wells at concentrations > 3 μg L−1. Atrazine has been prohibited in many of those areas for > 10 yr, providing an opportunity to evaluate weed community composition differences due to herbicide regulation. In question, has the abundance of broadleaf weeds increased, coupled with an increased reliance on glyphosate, where atrazine use has been discontinued? To answer this, an online questionnaire was distributed to Wisconsin growers in June and then weeds present in 343 fields in late July through mid-September in 2012 and 2013 were counted. Data were summarized for frequency, uniformity, density, and relative abundance to compare weed community composition in fields with discontinued vs. recent atrazine use. Growers used glyphosate in 70 vs. 54% of fields with discontinued vs. recent atrazine use, respectively (P = 0.021). Moreover, broadleaf weeds were found more frequently, (73 vs. 61%; P = 0.03), they had 50% greater in-field uniformity (P = 0.002), and density was 0.4 vs. 0.19 plants m−2 (i.e., twofold greater; P < 0.0001) in discontinued vs. recent atrazine-use fields. Changes were most evident with troublesome glyphosate-resistant broadleaf weeds such as Amaranthus species and giant ragweed. In conclusion, weed community composition consisted of more broadleaf weeds in fields where atrazine has not been used in the recent decade coupled with greater glyphosate use. These results provide evidence of negative long-term implications for glyphosate resistance where growers increased reliance on glyphosate in place of atrazine.
Pigweeds are among the most abundant and troublesome weed species across Midwest and mid-South soybean production systems because of their prolific growth characteristics and ability to rapidly evolve resistance to several herbicide sites of action. This has renewed interest in diversifying weed management strategies by implementing integrated weed management (IWM) programs to efficiently manage weeds, increase soybean light interception, and increase grain yield. Field studies were conducted across 16 site-years to determine the effectiveness of soybean row width, seeding rate, and herbicide strategy as components of IWM in glufosinate-resistant soybean. Sites were grouped according to optimum adaptation zones for soybean maturity groups (MGs). Across all MG regions, pigweed density and height at the POST herbicide timing, and end-of-season pigweed density, height, and fecundity were reduced in IWM programs using a PRE followed by (fb) POST herbicide strategy. Furthermore, a PRE fb POST herbicide strategy treatment increased soybean cumulative intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (CIPAR) and subsequently, soybean grain yield across all MG regions. Soybean row width and seeding rate manipulation effects were highly variable. Narrow row width (≤ 38 cm) and a high seeding rate (470,000 seeds ha−1) reduced end-of-season height and fecundity variably across MG regions compared with wide row width (≥ 76 cm) and moderate to low (322,000 to 173,000 seeds ha−1) seeding rates. However, narrow row widths and high seeding rates did not reduce pigweed density at the POST herbicide application timing or at soybean harvest. Across all MG regions, soybean CIPAR increased as soybean row width decreased and seeding rate increased; however, row width and seeding rate had variable effects on soybean yield. Furthermore, soybean CIPAR was not associated with end-of-season pigweed growth and fecundity. A PRE fb POST herbicide strategy was a necessary component for an IWM program as it simultaneously managed pigweeds, increased soybean CIPAR, and increased grain yield.
Herbicide-resistant Amaranthus spp. continue to cause management difficulties in soybean. New soybean technologies under development, including resistance to various combinations of glyphosate, glufosinate, dicamba, 2,4-D, isoxaflutole, and mesotrione, will make possible the use of additional herbicide sites of action in soybean than is currently available. When this research was conducted, these soybean traits were still regulated and testing herbicide programs with the appropriate soybean genetics in a single experiment was not feasible. Therefore, the effectiveness of various herbicide programs (PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides) was evaluated in bare-ground experiments on glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth and glyphosate-resistant waterhemp (both tall and common) at locations in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Nebraska, and Tennessee. Twenty-five herbicide programs were evaluated; 5 of which were PRE herbicides only, 10 were PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides 3 to 4 wks after (WA) the PRE application (EPOST), and 10 were PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides 6 to 7 WA the PRE application (LPOST). Programs with EPOST herbicides provided 94% or greater control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp at 3 to 4 WA the EPOST. Overall, programs with LPOST herbicides resulted in a period of weed emergence in which weeds would typically compete with a crop. Weeds were not completely controlled with the LPOST herbicides because weed sizes were larger (≥ 15 cm) compared with their sizes at the EPOST application (≤ 7 cm). Most programs with LPOST herbicides provided 80 to 95% control at 3 to 4 WA applied LPOST. Based on an orthogonal contrast, using a synthetic-auxin herbicide LPOST improves control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp over programs not containing a synthetic-auxin LPOST. These results show herbicides that can be used in soybean and that contain auxinic- or HPPD-resistant traits will provide growers with an opportunity for better control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth and waterhemp over a wide range of geographies and environments.
In-field surveys, which directly estimate weed population densities, typically utilize either random or nonrandom field selection methods. We used both methods to characterize the distribution and frequency of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed populations and other late-season soybean weed escapes and to develop a database for tracking weed shifts, control failures, and the presence of other herbicide-resistant biotypes over time in Indiana. In-field surveys were conducted in a total of 978 Indiana soybean fields during September and October of 2003, 2004, and 2005. Information from fields with horseweed was obtained from 158 sites (19%) sampled through a systematic random site selection method and 128 fields through a nonrandom site selection method. When present, horseweed seed was collected and germinated in the greenhouse; rosettes 5 to 10 cm wide were sprayed with 1.72 kg ae/ha of glyphosate. Populations with less than 60% control at 28 d after treatment were determined to be glyphosate resistant. A selected subset of glyphosate-resistant populations was confirmed resistant by subsequent glyphosate dose response experiments. All populations in the subset with less than 60% control at the 1.72 kg ae/ha rate of glyphosate demonstrated 4- to 110-fold levels of resistance (R : S ratios). Glyphosate-resistant populations were found in all regions of Indiana; however, the highest frequencies were in the southeastern (SE) region with 38% of fields sampled and only 1, 2, and 2% of fields sampled in the northwestern (NW), northeastern (NE), and southwestern (SW) regions, respectively. Information gathered in this survey can assist in the development of applied research, as well as reactive glyphosate-resistant horseweed management education in the SE region of the state. Moreover, detecting resistance at low frequencies can direct proactive resistance education to farmers and practitioners in the other regions of the state as a means of providing an early warning system to address glyphosate resistance in weeds.
Soybean planting has occurred earlier in the Midwestern United States in recent years; however, earlier planting subjects the crop to longer durations of weed interference. This may change the optimum timing of POST glyphosate applications, or increase the need for residual herbicides applied PRE to optimize yield. A field study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 near Arlington, WI to determine the effect of planting date, residual herbicide use, and POST glyphosate timing on weed control and soybean yield. Planting dates were late April, mid-May, and early June. A PRE application of sulfentrazone plus cloransulam was applied to half the plots following each planting date. Glyphosate was applied POST to all plots at the V1, V2, V4, or R1 soybean growth stage. Planting date and glyphosate timing did not affect soybean yield in this study. However, averaged across years, planting dates, and POST glyphosate timings, yield increased from 3,280 to 3,500 kg ha−1 when a PRE herbicide with residual soil activity was used. In POST-only treatments, delaying the planting date to June decreased weed density at POST application timing from 127 to 5 plants m−2 (96%) and from 205 to 42 plants m−2 (80%) in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Where a PRE was used, total weed density at POST application timing was always less within planting date, and also declined from early to late planting date 26 to 3 plants m−2 (89%) and 23 to 6 plants m−2 (74%) in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In conclusion, both PRE herbicide use and delayed soybean planting were effective strategies to reduce the number of in-crop weeds exposed to POST glyphosate and should be considered as strategies to reduce the number of weeds exposed to POST herbicides for resistance management.
Horseweed can be a problematic weed in no-till soybean fields and populations can vary in their response to 2,4-D. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and seed production of four horseweed populations after exposure to 2,4-D. 2,4-D amine was applied at 0, 140, 280, and 560 g ae ha−1 to 5- to 10-cm-tall horseweed plants. An additional treatment of 280 g ha−1 of 2,4-D + 840 g ae ha−1 of glyphosate was included in the study. At 2 wk after treatment (WAT), injury ranged from 47 to 98%, but by 6 WAT the injury ranged from 89 to 100% for all four populations. Between 6 and 12 WAT some individual horseweed plants started to recover. No differences in dry weights were observed between the four populations in the untreated checks at 0, 2, 6, and 12 WAT. At 280 g ha−1 of 2,4-D amine, seed production was reduced by greater than 95%. However, three of the four horseweed populations had plants that survived and produced seed after exposure to 840 g ha−1 of glyphosate + 280 g ha−1 of 2,4-D. One plant produced seed after exposure to 560 g ha−1 of 2,4-D. These results suggest that horseweed can evolve resistance to 2,4-D and no fitness penalities were observed in populations that had higher levels of tolerance to 2,4-D.
A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the influence of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) –susceptible and –resistant plant combinations on SCN population densities and plant growth. Purple deadnettle, annual ryegrass, SCN-resistant and -susceptible soybean were planted in pots alone or in combination at one plant pot−1. Annual ryegrass and purple deadnettle reduced soybean growth. Pots with SCN-resistant plants had lower numbers of SCN cysts and eggs than pots with SCN-susceptible plants. However, an SCN-susceptible species grown with any of the SCN-resistant plants resulted in higher cyst counts than pots with only SCN-resistant plants. From an SCN management standpoint, this research suggests that there may be no incentive to using annual ryegrass as a cover crop over planting other SCN-resistant crops to reduce SCN population density.
Horseweed populations with mixtures of biotypes resistant to glyphosate and acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides as well as biotypes with multiple resistance to glyphosate + ALS-inhibiting herbicides have been documented in Indiana and Ohio. These biotypes are particularly problematic because ALS-inhibiting herbicides are commonly tank mixed with glyphosate to improve postemergence horseweed control in soybean. The objective of this research was to characterize the growth and seed production of horseweed populations with resistance to glyphosate or ALS-inhibiting herbicides, and multiple resistance to glyphosate + ALS-inhibiting herbicides. A four-herbicide by four-horseweed population factorial field experiment was conducted in the southeastern region of Indiana in 2007 and repeated in 2008. Four horseweed populations were collected from Indiana or Ohio and confirmed resistant to glyphosate, ALS inhibitors, both, or neither in greenhouse experiments. The four herbicide treatments were untreated, 0.84 kg ae ha−1 glyphosate, 35 g ai ha−1 cloransulam, and 0.84 kg ae ha−1 glyphosate + 35 g ai ha−1 cloransulam. Untreated plants from horseweed populations that were resistant to glyphosate, ALS-inhibiting, or multiple glyphosate + ALS-inhibiting herbicides produced similar amounts of biomass and seed compared to populations that were susceptible to those herbicides or combination of herbicides. Furthermore, aboveground shoot mass and seed production did not differ between treated and untreated plants.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops have been rapidly adopted in the United States and the evolution of GR weeds throughout the world has also been on the rise. With experience, weed scientists and crop advisers develop “intuition” on the basis of field history and current in-field conditions for predicting whether escaped weed biotypes may be herbicide resistant. However, there are no previous reports on the association of in-field crop management factors with the prediction of herbicide resistance. By using in-field survey data, we tested the accuracy of predicting glyphosate resistance in late-season horseweed escapes. We hypothesized that glyphosate resistance in late-season horseweed populations found in soybean fields could be predicted using in-field knowledge of crop residues and the appearance and distribution of weeds in the field. Field survey data were collected to determine the distribution and frequency of GR horseweed populations in Indiana soybean fields during September and October of 2003, 2004, and 2005. After the in-field survey, soil properties for sampled field locations were also collected from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service Web Soil Survey. GR horseweed predictions used in-field presence of crop residues and the appearance, abundance, and distribution of weeds in the field. The significance of independent data factors were determined by chi-square statistics. The interactions and relative significance of multiple factors were modeled using classification and regression tree analysis. Our results indicated that the most important factor for predicting GR populations was the identification of an altered plant phenotype after injury from POST glyphosate. This was followed by crop rotation, field distribution, and the presence of other escaped weed species in the field in a model with a classification rate of 0.68.
Horseweed is an increasingly problematic weed in soybean because of the frequent occurrence of glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotypes. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of crop rotation, winter wheat cover crops (WWCC), residual nonglyphosate herbicides, and preplant herbicide application timing on the population dynamics of GR horseweed and crop yield. A field study was conducted at a site with a moderate infestation of GR horseweed (approximately 1 plant m−2) with crop rotation (soybean–corn or soybean–soybean) as main plots and management systems as subplots. Management systems were evaluated by quantifying horseweed plant density, seedbank density, and crop yield. Crop rotation did not influence in-field horseweed or seedbank densities at any data census timing. Preplant herbicides applied in the spring were more effective at reducing horseweed plant densities than when applied in the previous fall. Spring-applied, residual herbicide systems were the most effective at reducing season long horseweed densities and protecting crop yield because horseweed in this region behaves primarily as a summer annual weed. Horseweed seedbank densities declined rapidly in the soil by an average of 76% for all systems over the first 10 mo before new seed rain. Despite rapid decline in total seedbank density, seed for GR biotypes remained in the seedbank for at least 2 yr. Therefore, to reduce the presence of GR horseweed biotypes in a local no-till weed flora, integrated weed management (IWM) systems should be developed to reduce total horseweed populations based on the knowledge that seed for GR biotypes are as persistent in the seed bank as glyphosate-sensitive (GS) biotypes.
Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) is a common weed in no-till crop production systems. It is problematic because of the frequent occurrence of biotypes resistant to glyphosate and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides and its ability to complete its life cycle as a winter or summer annual weed. Tactics to control horseweed while controlling other winter annual weeds routinely fail; herbicide application timing and spring emergence patterns of horseweed may be responsible. The objectives of this experiment were to (1) determine the influence of fall and spring herbicides with and without soil residual horseweed activity on spring-emerging glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed density and (2) evaluate the efficacy and persistence of saflufenacil on GR horseweed. Field studies were conducted in southern Indiana and Illinois from fall 2006 to summer 2007 and repeated in 2007 to 2008. Six preplant herbicide treatments were applied at four application timings: early fall, late fall, early spring, and late spring. Horseweed plants were counted every 2 wk following the first spring application until the first week of July. Horseweed almost exclusively emerged in the spring at both locations. Spring horseweed emergence was higher when 2,4-D + glyphosate was fall-applied and controlled other winter annual weeds. With fall-applied 2,4-D + glyphosate, over 90% of the peak horseweed density was observed before April 25. In contrast, only 25% of the peak horseweed density was observed in the untreated check by April 25. Starting from the initiation of horseweed emergence in late March, chlorimuron + tribenuron applied early fall or early spring, and spring-applied saflufenacil at 100 g ai/ha provided greater than 90% horseweed control for 12 wk. Early spring–applied saflufenacil at 50 g ai/ha provided 8 wk of greater than 90% residual control, and early spring–applied simazine provided 6 wk of greater than 90% control. When applied in late spring, saflufenacil was the only herbicide treatment that reduced horseweed densities by greater than 90% compared to 2,4-D + glyphosate. We concluded from this research that fall applications of nonresidual herbicides can increase the rate and density of spring emerging horseweed. In addition, spring-applied saflufenacil provides no-till producers with a new preplant herbicide for foliar and residual control of glyphosate- and ALS-resistant horseweed.
Fall-applied residual and spring preplant burn-down herbicide applications are typically used to control winter annual weeds and may also provide early-season residual control of summer annual weed species such as giant ragweed. Field experiments were conducted from 2006 to 2008 in southern Illinois to (1) assess the emergence pattern of giant ragweed, (2) evaluate the efficacy of several herbicides commonly used for soil-residual control of giant ragweed, and (3) investigate the optimal application timing of soil-residual herbicides for control of giant ragweed. Six herbicide treatments were applied at four application timings: early fall, late fall, early spring, and late spring. Giant ragweed first emerged in mid- and late-March in 2007 and 2008, respectively. The duration of emergence varied by year, with 95% of emergence complete in late May of 2008, but not until early July in 2007. Giant ragweed emergence occurred more quickly in plots that received a fall application of glyphosate + 2,4-D compared with the nontreated. Fall-applied residual herbicides did not reduce giant ragweed emergence in 2007 when compared with the nontreated, with the exception of chlorimuron + tribenuron applied in late fall. Giant ragweed control from early- and late-spring herbicide applications was variable by year. In 2007, saflufenacil (50 and 100 g ai ha−1) and simazine applied in early spring reduced giant ragweed densities by 95% or greater through mid-May; however, in 2008, early-spring applications failed to reduce giant ragweed emergence in mid-April. The only treatments that reduced giant ragweed densities by > 80% through early July were late-spring applications of chlorimuron + tribenuron or saflufenacil at 100 g ha−1. Thus, the emergence patterns of giant ragweed in southern Illinois dictates that best management with herbicides would include late-spring applications of soil-residual herbicides just before crop planting and most likely requires subsequent control with foliar or soil-residual herbicides after crop emergence.
Partial seed retention line #23(‘PSR23’) cuphea is a hybrid of Cuphea viscosissima × C. lanceolata. It is a new, spring-planted, annual, potential oilseed crop that is highly susceptible to interference by weeds because of its slow growth during spring and early summer. Grass weeds are controlled easily in this broadleaf crop, but broadleaf weeds are an appreciable problem. Consequently, several broadleaf herbicides were screened for tolerance by ‘PSR23’ cuphea. Broadleaf herbicides to which cuphea showed tolerance in a spray cabinet and a greenhouse were tested in a field setting for 2 yr. Field tolerance was considered as absence of negative impact (P > 0.05) both years to any of four measured traits: overall vigor, dry weight, stand density, and time to anthesis. Cuphea showed tolerance in the field to three soil-applied herbicides (ethalfluralin, isoxaflutole, and trifluralin) and one postemergence herbicide (mesotrione). A few combinations of soil-applied and postemergence herbicides did not damage cuphea. These combinations were ethalfluralin followed by (fb) mesotrione, isoxaflutole fb imazethapyr, and isoxaflutole fb mesotrione. Availability of these herbicides for use in cuphea production may facilitate the domestication and acceptance of this new crop.
Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the prevalence of resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides in 266 Indiana horseweed populations, both glyphosate-susceptible and glyphosate-resistant, and to characterize the response of selected biotypes to combinations of glyphosate and cloransulam. Populations with individuals resistant to ALS inhibitors were more frequent in the northern half (38% of the populations in the NW and 50% of the populations in the NE) of Indiana than in the southern half (26% of the populations in the SW and 5% of the populations in the SE). Only 2% of the populations appeared to be resistant to both glyphosate and ALS inhibitors in an initial greenhouse study. Horseweed populations with resistance to ALS inhibitors exhibited herbicide doses required for 50% reduction in plant growth (GR50) values ranging from 14 to 255 g ai ha−1 of cloransulam. The resistant : susceptible (R : S) ratio for four horseweed populations with suspected resistance to glyphosate and ALS inhibitors ranged from 0.3 to 50 and from 2.5 to 8.1 for cloransulam and glyphosate, respectively. The tank mixtures exhibited an antagonistic response to 3 of the 16 combinations of cloransulam and glyphosate on the susceptible population. The tank mixtures exhibited primarily an additive response to those same combinations in the multiple-resistant populations, but the response was occasionally synergistic for two of the four populations. The additive response between glyphosate and cloransulam indicates that, where the level of resistance is fairly low, combinations of these herbicides should be more effective for control of multiple-resistant populations compared with application of a single herbicide.
Horseweed is an increasingly common and problematic weed in no-till soybean production in the eastern cornbelt due to the frequent occurrence of biotypes resistant to glyphosate. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of crop rotation, winter wheat cover crops (WWCC), residual non-glyphosate herbicides, and preplant application timing on the population dynamics of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed and crop yield. A field study was conducted from 2003 to 2007 in a no-till field located at a site that contained a moderate infestation of GR horseweed (approximately 1 plant m−2). The experiment was a split-plot design with crop rotation (soybean–corn or soybean–soybean) as main plots and management systems as subplots. Management systems were evaluated by quantifying in-field horseweed plant density, seedbank density, and crop yield. Horseweed densities were collected at the time of postemergence applications, 1 mo after postemergence (MAP) applications, and at the time of crop harvest or 4 MAP. Viable seedbank densities were also evaluated from soil samples collected in the fall following seed rain. Soybean–corn crop rotation reduced in-field and seedbank horseweed densities vs. continuous soybean in the third and fourth yr of this experiment. Preplant herbicides applied in the spring were more effective at reducing horseweed plant densities than when applied in the previous fall. Spring-applied, residual herbicide systems were the most effective at reducing season-long in-field horseweed densities and protecting crop yields since the growth habit of horseweed in this region is primarily as a summer annual. Management systems also influenced the GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) biotype population structure after 4 yr of management. The most dramatic shift was from the initial GR : GS ratio of 3 : 1 to a ratio of 1 : 6 after 4 yr of residual preplant herbicide use followed by non-glyphosate postemergence herbicides.
Atrazine is an important herbicide for broadleaf weed control in corn. Use rates have declined in many corn production systems due to environmental concerns and the availability of other effective herbicides, especially glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant hybrids. However, using multiple effective herbicide modes of action is ever more important because occurrence of herbicide-resistant weeds is increasing. An experiment to compare application timings of reduced rates of atrazine to benefit resistance management in broadleaf weeds while protecting corn yield was conducted in Wisconsin across four site-years in 2012 and 2013. Herbicide treatments consisted of five atrazine rate and timing combinations and three POST base herbicides: glyphosate, glufosinate, and tembotrione. Metolachlor was applied PRE at 2.1 kg ai ha−1 for grass control in all treatments. A linear regression model estimated that atrazine rates ≥ 1.0 kg ai ha−1 applied PRE would prevent exposure of common lambsquarters plants to POST herbicides, but giant ragweed and velvetleaf exposure was not influenced by timing. Corn yield was also not influenced by atrazine rate and timing combinations at the α = 0.05 level; however, at P = 0.06, corn yield was greater for atrazine applied PRE at 1.1 kg ha−1 than for atrazine applied PRE at 0.5 kg ha−1, POST at 1.1 kg ha−1, or not at all. In summary, higher rates of atrazine applied PRE may improve yield, as reported by others, but this study concludes reduced rates of atrazine (i.e., ≤ 1.1 kg ha−1) applied to corn in a POST tank mixture combination provided more consistent control of giant ragweed, velvetleaf, and common lambsquarters compared with atrazine applied PRE. This information should help direct atrazine application timing applied POST when applied at low rates to improve proactive herbicide resistance management.