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Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has become a vital part of the armamentarium of the surgeon. VATS is associated with shorter length of hospital stay and less use of pain medication than thoracotomy in the treatment of pneumothorax and minor resections. General anesthesia is usually induced with an intravenous agent such as propofol or thiopentone and maintained with an inhalational agent such as isoflurane in an air/oxygen mixture. The isolation and division of the bronchi and pulmonary blood vessels require more accurate and extensive dissection with VATS than conventional surgery. Thoracoscopic lobectomy can be oncologically equal to conventional open procedures with an experienced surgeon and have similar survival for early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Conversion to a thoracotomy is sometimes required if there is an unexpected change in the patient's condition such as chest wall invasion or the need for a sleeve resection.
To measure the occurrence and correlates of hunger and to evaluate the association between hunger and three health indicators among undocumented Mexican immigrants.
Non-probability cross-sectional sample.
Neighbourhoods within New York City.
Four hundred and thirty-one undocumented Mexican immigrants living in the USA.
Hunger was indicated by approximately 28% of respondents. In a multivariate model, working as a day labourer was associated with hunger (odds ratio (OR) 3.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.83–6.06) while receiving public assistance protected against hunger (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06–0.88). In multivariate models, respondents who reported experiencing hunger also reported poorer overall health (OR 1.69, 95% CI 0.95–3.02) and more days of poor mental (P = 0.045) and physical health (P < 0.0001). Greater amount of time lived in the USA was also associated with worse overall health (P = 0.054) and more days of poor mental and physical health (P < 0.01).
The present study shows that food insecurity and hunger may be problems among undocumented migrants living in the USA. Uncertain and unpredictable work schedules and limited access to public assistance may contribute to high levels of hunger, which in turn may also negatively affect mental and physical health. Increasing amount of time lived in the USA is also associated with poorer health indicators. Programmes that provide undocumented migrants with emergency access to resources may reduce food insecurity and lead to improved health outcomes among this vulnerable population.
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