In southern Norway, population fluctuations of the herbivorous bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus and the granivorous wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus were analysed in relation to mast seeding of bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus, sessile oak Quercus petraea and Norway spruce Picea abies. Bilberries ripen in August, acorns are dispersed in September, whereas spruce seeds are usually dispersed during winter or spring. The bilberry index of both the current and previous year contributed significantly to explain the population growth indices of bank vole. The spruce seed index significantly influenced only the bank vole, whereas the acorn index significantly influenced only the wood mouse, apparently through increased winter survival. Because of the lack of significant responses to bilberry masting by granivorous wood mice, we conclude that the most likely explanation for the observed peak populations of bank voles in post-mast years of bilberry is that high seed crops have a positive influence on the chemical composition of bilberry plants, which are important as food for bank voles during winter.