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The Competition Model has served as a functional explanation of cross-linguistic influence and transfer for more than 30 years. A large number of studies have used the Competition Model to frame investigations of sentence processing strategies in different types of bilingual and multilingual speakers. Among the different bilingual speakers investigated, Mandarin Chinese and English bilinguals represent a clear testing ground for the claims of the Competition Model. This is because of purportedly stark contrasts in sentence processing strategies between the two languages. Previous studies investigating sentence processing strategies of English L2 and Mandarin L2 bilinguals suggests forward transfer of L1 cues to the L2, moderated by L2 proficiency. In this paper, we argue for replication of two of these studies, namely Liu, Bates, and Li (1992) and Su (2001). These studies continue to be cited today as evidence of differences between English and Mandarin sentence processing strategies which is in turn taken as support for the predictions of the Competition Model. However, both studies presented methodological limitations in terms of measures of proficiency, participant and stimuli selection, and the statistical analysis. We suggest approximate replication of both of these studies and provide suggestions for how such replications might be conducted.
To assess potential transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms (AROs) using surrogate markers and bacterial cultures.
A 1,260-bed tertiary-care academic medical center.
The study included 25 patients (17 of whom were on contact precautions for AROs) and 77 healthcare personnel (HCP).
Fluorescent powder (FP) and MS2 bacteriophage were applied in patient rooms. HCP visits to each room were observed for 2–4 hours; hand hygiene (HH) compliance was recorded. Surfaces inside and outside the room and HCP skin and clothing were assessed for fluorescence, and swabs were collected for MS2 detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and selective bacterial cultures.
Transfer of FP was observed for 20 rooms (80%) and 26 HCP (34%). Transfer of MS2 was detected for 10 rooms (40%) and 15 HCP (19%). Bacterial cultures were positive for 1 room and 8 HCP (10%). Interactions with patients on contact precautions resulted in fewer FP detections than interactions with patients not on precautions (P < .001); MS2 detections did not differ by patient isolation status. Fluorescent powder detections did not differ by HCP type, but MS2 was recovered more frequently from physicians than from nurses (P = .03). Overall, HH compliance was better among HCP caring for patients on contact precautions than among HCP caring for patients not on precautions (P = .003), among nurses than among other nonphysician HCP at room entry (P = .002), and among nurses than among physicians at room exit (P = .03). Moreover, HCP who performed HH prior to assessment had fewer fluorescence detections (P = .008).
Contact precautions were associated with greater HCP HH compliance and reduced detection of FP and MS2.
Traditional dietary assessment methods in research can be challenging, with participant burden to complete an interview, diary, 24 h recall or questionnaire and researcher burden to code the food record to obtain a nutrient breakdown. Self-reported assessment methods are subject to recall and social desirability biases, in addition to selection bias from the nature of volunteering to take part in a research study. Supermarket loyalty card transaction records, linked to back of pack nutrient information, present a novel opportunity to use objective records of food purchases to assess diet at a household level. With a large sample size and multiple transactions, it is possible to review variation in food purchases over time and across different geographical areas.
Materials and methods:
This study uses supermarket loyalty card transactions for one retailer's customers in Leeds, for 12 months during 2016. Fruit and vegetable purchases for customers who appear to shop regularly for a ‘complete’ shop, buying from at least 7 of 11 Living Cost and Food Survey categories, were calculated. Using total weight of fruits and vegetables purchased over one year, average portions (80g) per day, per household were generated. Descriptive statistics of fruit and vegetable purchases by age, gender and Index of Multiple Deprivation of the loyalty card holder were generated. Using Geographical Information Systems, maps of neighbourhood purchases per month of the year were created to visualise variations.
The loyalty card holder transaction records represent 6.4% of the total Leeds population. On average, households in Leeds purchase 3.5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day, per household. Affluent and rural areas purchase more fruit and vegetables than average with 22% purchasing more than 5 portions/day. Conversely poor urban areas purchase less, with 18% purchasing less than 1 portion/day. Highest purchases are in the winter months, with lowest in the summer holidays. Loyalty cards registered to females purchased 0.4 portions per day more than male counterparts. The over 65 years purchased 1.5 portions per day more than the 17–24 year olds. A clear deprivation gradient is observed, with the most deprived purchasing 1.5 portions less per day than the least deprived.
Loyalty card transaction data offer an exciting opportunity for measuring variation in fruit and vegetable purchases. Variation is observed by age, gender, deprivation, geographically across a city and throughout the seasons. These insights can inform both policymakers and retailers regarding areas for fruit and vegetable promotion.
Supermarket transaction data, generated from loyalty cards, offers a novel source of food purchase information. Data are available for large sample sizes, over sustained periods of time, allowing for habitual purchasing patterns to be generated. In the UK, recommended dietary patterns to achieve a healthy diet are pictorially illustrated using the Eatwell Guide. Foods include: Fruit and vegetables; starchy products including potatoes, bread, pasta, rice; dairy or dairy alternatives; proteins such as beans, pulses, fish, eggs and meat; oils and spreads; and advice to limit foods high in salt, fat and sugar. Through mapping of foods purchased to the categories of the Eatwell Guide it is possible to review population performance against these national recommendations.
Materials and methods
All loyalty card transaction records for purchases made in a UK supermarket chain, by residents of Yorkshire and the Humber during 2016 were included in this research. Customers who purchased foods from 7 or 11 Living Cost and Food Survey (LCFS) categories on ten or more occasions throughout the year were included in the sample, as these customers were considered to be purchasing the majority of their foods from the supermarket. All foods purchased were mapped to the Eatwell Guide food groups via the LCFS categories.
Households purchased: 25% of their total spend on fruits and vegetables, compared with 39% recommended; 13% on starchy products compared to 37% recommended; 23% of protein rich foods compared with 12% recommended; 12% dairy and alternatives compared to 8%; oils and spreads 2% compared to 1% recommended; and 25% foods that should be limited compared to 3% (recommended, but not pictorially illustrated on the plate).
Supermarket transaction data is a novel source of food purchase information which can be used to illustrate dietary behaviours in the UK population. However, it represents foods purchased, not consumed and is at a household level, not individual. Food purchases outside the home are not included. That said, it is arguably an objective measure for dietary assessment. From this study, it is clear to see that food purchases do not match the recommendations. Purchases of high sugar, high fat and high salt snacks constitute a significant proportion of spending, when they should in fact be limited. Protein rich products are also over-represented. Fruit and vegetables and starchy products are under-represented. This insight can benefit both retailers and policy makers for understanding the food purchase behaviours of our society.
Basic symptoms, defined as subjectively perceived disturbances in thought, perception and other essential mental processes, have been established as a predictor of psychotic disorders. However, the relationship between basic symptoms and family history of a transdiagnostic range of severe mental illness, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, has not been examined.
We sought to test whether non-severe mood disorders and severe mood and psychotic disorders in parents is associated with increased basic symptoms in their biological offspring.
We measured basic symptoms using the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument – Child and Youth Version in 332 youth aged 8–26 years, including 93 offspring of control parents, 92 offspring of a parent with non-severe mood disorders, and 147 offspring of a parent with severe mood and psychotic disorders. We tested the relationships between parent mental illness and offspring basic symptoms in mixed-effects linear regression models.
Offspring of a parent with severe mood and psychotic disorders (B = 0.69, 95% CI 0.22–1.16, P = 0.004) or illness with psychotic features (B = 0.68, 95% CI 0.09–1.27, P = 0.023) had significantly higher basic symptom scores than control offspring. Offspring of a parent with non-severe mood disorders reported intermediate levels of basic symptoms, that did not significantly differ from control offspring.
Basic symptoms during childhood are a marker of familial risk of psychopathology that is related to severity and is not specific to psychotic illness.
The associations between growth during early life and subsequent cognitive development and physical outcomes are not widely known in low-resource settings. We examined postnatal weight and height gain through early life and related these measurements to the nutritional status and intellectual development of the same children when they were between 7 and 9 years old. Mothers had enrolled in an randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on birth weight. Their children were born in 2004, their height and weight were measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age and were followed up between October 2012 and September 2013 (at ages 7–9 years, n 650). Height-for-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to describe the nutritional status, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children fourth edition was used to measure the intellectual function. Multilevel linear and logistic modelling was used to estimate the association between early growth and subsequent growth and intellectual function. After adjustment, weight gain from 6 to 12 months of age was associated with Full-scale Intelligence Quotient, Verbal Comprehension Index, Working Memory Index and Perceptual Reasoning Index. Weight gain during early life was associated with subsequent nutritional status. For every 1 kg increase in weight during the 0- to 6-month period, the OR for underweight, thinness and stunting at 7–9 years of age were 0·19 (95 % CI 0·09, 0·37), 0·34 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·59) and 0·40 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·83), respectively. Weight gain during the periods of 6–12 months of age and 18–24 months of age was also associated with a lower risk of being underweight. Weight gain during early life was associated with better growth outcomes and improved intellectual development in young school-aged children.
In 2014, the Southeastern Archaeological Conference (SEAC) conducted a sexual harassment survey of its membership. The survey's goal was to investigate whether sexual harassment had occurred among its members, and if so, to document the rate and demographics of harassment. Our findings include a high (66%) level of harassment, primarily among women, with an additional 13% of respondents reporting sexual assault. This article provides an overview of the survey and responses. Additionally, we analyze survey data aimed at capturing change over time in harassment and assault, correlation between field and non-field tasks and harassment and assault, and correlation between gender of supervisor and harassment and assault. We also discuss the effects of harassment and assault on careers. We conclude with suggestions for decreasing the rate of harassment and assault and urge professional archaeological organizations to document sexual harassment and assault to mitigate the effects on their members and on the discipline as a whole.
Professor Nigel Lowe is the leading expert in international family law, with a world-wide reputation for his work in child law, international family relocation and child abduction. His career, spanning more than 40 years, has produced a huge body of literature and is internationally influential and of particular importance within Europe. A collaborative effort by members of the judiciary, practitioners and fellow academics from both the United Kingdom and other jurisdictions International and National Perspectives on Child and Family Law is a recognition of the impact of his work. It covers key issues in international child and family law including those in which Professor Lowe's work has been particularly influential, namely adoption, wardship, parental responsibility, children's rights, international family relocation and the 1980 Hague Convention on International Child Abduction. International and transnational family law has been a developing field of study and a growing area of legal practice over recent years. At a time of great international change and with the complications and implications of Brexit, this book covers many of the key issues in family law today and provides the reader with an exploration of possible future developments in the field. GILLIAN DOUGLAS is Professor of Law and Executive Dean of the Dickson Poon School of Law, King's College London. She is a Fellow of the British Academy, the Learned Society of Wales and the Academy of Social Sciences. She is a co-editor of the Child and Family Law Quarterly and a case reports editor for the Family Law journal. MERVYN MURCH CBE is Emeritus Professor in Cardiff University's School of Law and Politics. For over 40 years he has undertaken socio-legal family law research associated with social policy and law reform. VICTORIA STEPHENS is a freelance legal researcher, currently working for the Hague Conference on Private International Law. She also works as a project manager at the international NGO, IREX Europe, and has previously worked for the UK Cabinet Office, Department of Health and the Law Commission of England and Wales.
As a young lad Nigel used to collect train numbers. That was in the 1960s in the last days of British Rail steam engines. With other boys he would travel all over the country in search of some rare engine – perhaps a GWR Castle, a LMS Coronation or an elusive ‘Black Five’. So determined was he that he would sometimes trespass on the railway and creep into some smoky old engine shed to find that much-sought-aft er missing number to complete his list. Occasionally he was caught and chased away but he would return when the coast was clear. Who would have thought such a minor juvenile delinquent would turn into the distinguished academic investigator that we all know and admire today?
But pause a moment and reflect. What are the characteristics revealed in the escapades of the young adolescent all those years ago? Three things stand out which mark his work today: first, a certain obsessive love of numbers; secondly, an unwavering determination to pursue his goals; and thirdly, a love of travelling, particularly by train. Let us explain …
Nigel began his career in the Law at the University of Sheffield (1966 – 1969), studying, inter alia, with Mary Hayes (now Professor Emeritus), who taught him Family Law. He was awarded a Duke of Edinburgh Entrance Scholarship and called to the Bar by the Inner Temple in 1972, but he began his academic career, slightly unusually for those days, by taking a post as a Research Associate at the University of Birmingham's Institute of Judicial Administration from 1969 – 1971. There, he worked with Professor Gordon Borrie on a major book, The Law of Contempt (1st edn. 1973). That period of focused concentration on exploring a complex, and at times very technical, legal subject gave him valuable experience on which to build his future independent research and scholarship: he has never been afraid to tackle difficult and large legal questions; he has always been a master of the ‘black letter law’ and he has always seen the policy and practice implications of legal developments.
Research into the analysis, physical properties and health effects of dietary fibre has continued steadily over the last 40–50 years. From the knowledge gained, countries have developed guidelines for their populations on the optimal amount of fibre to be consumed each day. Food composition tables from many countries now contain values for the dietary fibre content of foods, and, from these, combined with dietary surveys, population intakes have been determined. The present review assessed the uniformity of the analytical methods used, health claims permitted, recommendations and intakes, particularly from national surveys across Europe and around the world. It also assessed current knowledge on health effects of dietary fibre and related the impact of different fibre types on health. The overall intent was to be able to provide more detailed guidance on the types of fibre which should be consumed for good health, rather than simply a total intake figure, the current situation. Analysis of data indicated a fair degree of uniformity in the definition of dietary fibre, the method used for analysis, the recommended amount to be consumed and a growing literature on effects on digestive health and disease risk. However, national dietary survey data showed that intakes do not reach recommendations and very few countries provide guidance on the types of fibre that are preferable to achieve recommended intakes. Research gaps were identified and ideas suggested to provide information for more detailed advice to the public about specific food sources that should be consumed to achieve health benefits.
To evaluate healthcare worker (HCW) risk of self-contamination when donning and doffing personal protective equipment (PPE) using fluorescence and MS2 bacteriophage.
Prospective pilot study.
A total of 36 HCWs were included in this study: 18 donned/doffed contact precaution (CP) PPE and 18 donned/doffed Ebola virus disease (EVD) PPE.
HCWs donned PPE according to standard protocols. Fluorescent liquid and MS2 bacteriophage were applied to HCWs. HCWs then doffed their PPE. After doffing, HCWs were scanned for fluorescence and swabbed for MS2. MS2 detection was performed using reverse transcriptase PCR. The donning and doffing processes were videotaped, and protocol deviations were recorded.
Overall, 27% of EVD PPE HCWs and 50% of CP PPE HCWs made ≥1 protocol deviation while donning, and 100% of EVD PPE HCWs and 67% of CP PPE HCWs made ≥1 protocol deviation while doffing (P=.02). The median number of doffing protocol deviations among EVD PPE HCWs was 4, versus 1 among CP PPE HCWs. Also, 15 EVD PPE protocol deviations were committed by doffing assistants and/or trained observers. Fluorescence was detected on 8 EVD PPE HCWs (44%) and 5 CP PPE HCWs (28%), most commonly on hands. MS2 was recovered from 2 EVD PPE HCWs (11%) and 3 CP PPE HCWs (17%).
Protocol deviations were common during both EVD and CP PPE doffing, and some deviations during EVD PPE doffing were committed by the HCW doffing assistant and/or the trained observer. Self-contamination was common. PPE donning/doffing are complex and deserve additional study.