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Basic symptoms, defined as subjectively perceived disturbances in thought, perception and other essential mental processes, have been established as a predictor of psychotic disorders. However, the relationship between basic symptoms and family history of a transdiagnostic range of severe mental illness, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, has not been examined.
We sought to test whether non-severe mood disorders and severe mood and psychotic disorders in parents is associated with increased basic symptoms in their biological offspring.
We measured basic symptoms using the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument – Child and Youth Version in 332 youth aged 8–26 years, including 93 offspring of control parents, 92 offspring of a parent with non-severe mood disorders, and 147 offspring of a parent with severe mood and psychotic disorders. We tested the relationships between parent mental illness and offspring basic symptoms in mixed-effects linear regression models.
Offspring of a parent with severe mood and psychotic disorders (B = 0.69, 95% CI 0.22–1.16, P = 0.004) or illness with psychotic features (B = 0.68, 95% CI 0.09–1.27, P = 0.023) had significantly higher basic symptom scores than control offspring. Offspring of a parent with non-severe mood disorders reported intermediate levels of basic symptoms, that did not significantly differ from control offspring.
Basic symptoms during childhood are a marker of familial risk of psychopathology that is related to severity and is not specific to psychotic illness.
The associations between growth during early life and subsequent cognitive development and physical outcomes are not widely known in low-resource settings. We examined postnatal weight and height gain through early life and related these measurements to the nutritional status and intellectual development of the same children when they were between 7 and 9 years old. Mothers had enrolled in an randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on birth weight. Their children were born in 2004, their height and weight were measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age and were followed up between October 2012 and September 2013 (at ages 7–9 years, n 650). Height-for-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to describe the nutritional status, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children fourth edition was used to measure the intellectual function. Multilevel linear and logistic modelling was used to estimate the association between early growth and subsequent growth and intellectual function. After adjustment, weight gain from 6 to 12 months of age was associated with Full-scale Intelligence Quotient, Verbal Comprehension Index, Working Memory Index and Perceptual Reasoning Index. Weight gain during early life was associated with subsequent nutritional status. For every 1 kg increase in weight during the 0- to 6-month period, the OR for underweight, thinness and stunting at 7–9 years of age were 0·19 (95 % CI 0·09, 0·37), 0·34 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·59) and 0·40 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·83), respectively. Weight gain during the periods of 6–12 months of age and 18–24 months of age was also associated with a lower risk of being underweight. Weight gain during early life was associated with better growth outcomes and improved intellectual development in young school-aged children.
In 2014, the Southeastern Archaeological Conference (SEAC) conducted a sexual harassment survey of its membership. The survey's goal was to investigate whether sexual harassment had occurred among its members, and if so, to document the rate and demographics of harassment. Our findings include a high (66%) level of harassment, primarily among women, with an additional 13% of respondents reporting sexual assault. This article provides an overview of the survey and responses. Additionally, we analyze survey data aimed at capturing change over time in harassment and assault, correlation between field and non-field tasks and harassment and assault, and correlation between gender of supervisor and harassment and assault. We also discuss the effects of harassment and assault on careers. We conclude with suggestions for decreasing the rate of harassment and assault and urge professional archaeological organizations to document sexual harassment and assault to mitigate the effects on their members and on the discipline as a whole.
As a young lad Nigel used to collect train numbers. That was in the 1960s in the last days of British Rail steam engines. With other boys he would travel all over the country in search of some rare engine – perhaps a GWR Castle, a LMS Coronation or an elusive ‘Black Five’. So determined was he that he would sometimes trespass on the railway and creep into some smoky old engine shed to find that much-sought-aft er missing number to complete his list. Occasionally he was caught and chased away but he would return when the coast was clear. Who would have thought such a minor juvenile delinquent would turn into the distinguished academic investigator that we all know and admire today?
But pause a moment and reflect. What are the characteristics revealed in the escapades of the young adolescent all those years ago? Three things stand out which mark his work today: first, a certain obsessive love of numbers; secondly, an unwavering determination to pursue his goals; and thirdly, a love of travelling, particularly by train. Let us explain …
Nigel began his career in the Law at the University of Sheffield (1966 – 1969), studying, inter alia, with Mary Hayes (now Professor Emeritus), who taught him Family Law. He was awarded a Duke of Edinburgh Entrance Scholarship and called to the Bar by the Inner Temple in 1972, but he began his academic career, slightly unusually for those days, by taking a post as a Research Associate at the University of Birmingham's Institute of Judicial Administration from 1969 – 1971. There, he worked with Professor Gordon Borrie on a major book, The Law of Contempt (1st edn. 1973). That period of focused concentration on exploring a complex, and at times very technical, legal subject gave him valuable experience on which to build his future independent research and scholarship: he has never been afraid to tackle difficult and large legal questions; he has always been a master of the ‘black letter law’ and he has always seen the policy and practice implications of legal developments.
Professor Nigel Lowe is the leading expert in international family law, with a world-wide reputation for his work in child law, international family relocation and child abduction. His career, spanning more than 40 years, has produced a huge body of literature and is internationally influential and of particular importance within Europe. A collaborative effort by members of the judiciary, practitioners and fellow academics from both the United Kingdom and other jurisdictions International and National Perspectives on Child and Family Law is a recognition of the impact of his work. It covers key issues in international child and family law including those in which Professor Lowe's work has been particularly influential, namely adoption, wardship, parental responsibility, children's rights, international family relocation and the 1980 Hague Convention on International Child Abduction. International and transnational family law has been a developing field of study and a growing area of legal practice over recent years. At a time of great international change and with the complications and implications of Brexit, this book covers many of the key issues in family law today and provides the reader with an exploration of possible future developments in the field. GILLIAN DOUGLAS is Professor of Law and Executive Dean of the Dickson Poon School of Law, King's College London. She is a Fellow of the British Academy, the Learned Society of Wales and the Academy of Social Sciences. She is a co-editor of the Child and Family Law Quarterly and a case reports editor for the Family Law journal. MERVYN MURCH CBE is Emeritus Professor in Cardiff University's School of Law and Politics. For over 40 years he has undertaken socio-legal family law research associated with social policy and law reform. VICTORIA STEPHENS is a freelance legal researcher, currently working for the Hague Conference on Private International Law. She also works as a project manager at the international NGO, IREX Europe, and has previously worked for the UK Cabinet Office, Department of Health and the Law Commission of England and Wales.
We construct initial conditions for an ice flow model of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). GrIS has been losing mass at an increasing rate over the past two decades, and a significant proportion of this loss is due to dynamic thinning of narrow outlet glaciers. We solve an inverse problem to estimate poorly known basal and englacial parameters given observed geometry and surface velocities. A weighted cost function, resolved to 4 km in the interior of the ice sheet and 1 km in regions of fast-flowing ice at the margin, is minimized to find two-dimensional fields for a stiffness factor, which is a coefficient of the effective viscosity, and basal traction coefficient. Using these fields, we run the model under present-day climate to damp large-amplitude, short-wavelength fluctuations in the flux divergence. The time-dependent model uses an adaptive mesh with resolution ranging from 8 km of the base grid to 500 m in areas of fast-flowing ice to capture the behaviour of the main outlet glaciers. The ice discharge calculated from the initial conditions for GrIS and individual glaciers compares well with values calculated from observations.
Research into the analysis, physical properties and health effects of dietary fibre has continued steadily over the last 40–50 years. From the knowledge gained, countries have developed guidelines for their populations on the optimal amount of fibre to be consumed each day. Food composition tables from many countries now contain values for the dietary fibre content of foods, and, from these, combined with dietary surveys, population intakes have been determined. The present review assessed the uniformity of the analytical methods used, health claims permitted, recommendations and intakes, particularly from national surveys across Europe and around the world. It also assessed current knowledge on health effects of dietary fibre and related the impact of different fibre types on health. The overall intent was to be able to provide more detailed guidance on the types of fibre which should be consumed for good health, rather than simply a total intake figure, the current situation. Analysis of data indicated a fair degree of uniformity in the definition of dietary fibre, the method used for analysis, the recommended amount to be consumed and a growing literature on effects on digestive health and disease risk. However, national dietary survey data showed that intakes do not reach recommendations and very few countries provide guidance on the types of fibre that are preferable to achieve recommended intakes. Research gaps were identified and ideas suggested to provide information for more detailed advice to the public about specific food sources that should be consumed to achieve health benefits.
To evaluate healthcare worker (HCW) risk of self-contamination when donning and doffing personal protective equipment (PPE) using fluorescence and MS2 bacteriophage.
Prospective pilot study.
A total of 36 HCWs were included in this study: 18 donned/doffed contact precaution (CP) PPE and 18 donned/doffed Ebola virus disease (EVD) PPE.
HCWs donned PPE according to standard protocols. Fluorescent liquid and MS2 bacteriophage were applied to HCWs. HCWs then doffed their PPE. After doffing, HCWs were scanned for fluorescence and swabbed for MS2. MS2 detection was performed using reverse transcriptase PCR. The donning and doffing processes were videotaped, and protocol deviations were recorded.
Overall, 27% of EVD PPE HCWs and 50% of CP PPE HCWs made ≥1 protocol deviation while donning, and 100% of EVD PPE HCWs and 67% of CP PPE HCWs made ≥1 protocol deviation while doffing (P=.02). The median number of doffing protocol deviations among EVD PPE HCWs was 4, versus 1 among CP PPE HCWs. Also, 15 EVD PPE protocol deviations were committed by doffing assistants and/or trained observers. Fluorescence was detected on 8 EVD PPE HCWs (44%) and 5 CP PPE HCWs (28%), most commonly on hands. MS2 was recovered from 2 EVD PPE HCWs (11%) and 3 CP PPE HCWs (17%).
Protocol deviations were common during both EVD and CP PPE doffing, and some deviations during EVD PPE doffing were committed by the HCW doffing assistant and/or the trained observer. Self-contamination was common. PPE donning/doffing are complex and deserve additional study.
This editorial explores the implications of social media practices whereby
people with mental health problems share their experiences in online public
spaces and challenge mental health stigma. Social media enable individuals
to bring personal experience into the public domain with the potential to
affect public attitudes and mainstream media. We draw tentative conclusions
regarding the use of social media by campaigning organisations.
There is now a well-established link between childhood maltreatment and
psychosis. It is, however, unclear what the mechanisms are by which this
occurs. Here, we propose a pathway linking the experience of childhood
maltreatment with biological changes in the brain and suggest a
psychological intervention to ameliorate its effects.