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The roles that older workers play in labour markets has received a great deal of policy and academic scrutiny in response to economic crises and demographic change. As a starting point, this focus has paradoxically resulted in insufficient attention to older workers themselves. The article is thus concerned with refocusing the agenda for research onto the older worker. Building on an extensive literature review, four gaps in knowledge are identified: who might be researched; what the focus of that research might be; the role of theory informing the research; and how the research might be conducted. The article identifies a particular need for research on ‘work’ as opposed to ‘retirement’ and how the changing nature of work may influence future patterns of later life labour market engagement and retirement. It is argued that better public policy will result from more critical and socially embedded research that recognises the heterogeneity of ‘older workers’ and their motivations.
The Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena (CRISP) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC). CRISP is a partnership between Yale University, Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU) and Brookhaven National Laboratory. A main focus of CRISP research is complex oxide interfaces that are prepared using epitaxial techniques, including molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Complex oxides exhibit a wealth of electronic, magnetic and chemical behaviors, and the surfaces and interfaces of complex oxides can have properties that differ substantially from those of the corresponding bulk materials. CRISP employs this research program in a concerted way to educate students at all levels. CRISP has constructed a robust MBE apparatus specifically designed for safe and productive use by undergraduates. Students can grow their own samples and then characterize them with facilities at both Yale and SCSU, providing a complete research and educational experience. This paper will focus on the implementation of the CRISP Teaching MBE facility and its use in the study of the synthesis and properties of the crystalline oxide-silicon interface.
Hospital-acquired Legionella pneumonia has a fatality rate of 28%, and the source is the water distribution system. Two prevention strategies have been advocated. One approach to prevention is clinical surveillance for disease without routine environmental monitoring. Another approach recommends environmental monitoring even in the absence of known cases of Legionella pneumonia. We determined the Legionella colonization status of water systems in hospitals to establish whether the results of environmental surveillance correlated with discovery of disease. None of these hospitals had previously experienced endemic hospital-acquired Legionella pneumonia.
Twenty US hospitals in 13 states.
Hospitals performed clinical and environmental surveillance for Legionella from 2000 through 2002. All specimens were shipped to the Special Pathogens Laboratory at the Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Medical Center.
Legionella pneumophila and Legionella anisa were isolated from 14 (70%) of 20 hospital water systems. Of 676 environmental samples, 198 (29%) were positive for Legionella species. High-level colonization of the water system (30% or more of the distal outlets were positive for L. pneumophila) was demonstrated for 6 (43%) of the 14 hospitals with positive findings. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was detected in 5 of these 6 hospitals, whereas 1 hospital was colonized with L. pneumophila serogroup 5. A total of 633 patients were evaluated for Legionella pneumonia from 12 (60%) of the 20 hospitals: 377 by urinary antigen testing and 577 by sputum culture. Hospital-acquired Legionella pneumonia was identified in 4 hospitals, all of which were hospitals with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 found in 30% or more of the distal outlets. No cases of disease due to other serogroups or species (L. anisa) were identified.
Environmental monitoring followed by clinical surveillance was successful in uncovering previously unrecognized cases of hospital-acquired Legionella pneumonia.
A variety of surgical strategies have been utilized in attempts to accomplish long-term haemodynamic stability in patients with cardiac anomalies characterized by discordant atrioventricular connections, ventricular septal defect, and severe sub-pulmonary obstruction. The majority of these patients have what is commonly referred to as congenitally corrected transposition, together with a ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis or atresia, in the setting of either usual or mirror imaged arrangement of the atrial chambers and the other organs of the body. A smaller sub-group, with discordant atrioventricular connections and double outlet right ventricle, with severe sub-pulmonary obstruction or pulmonary atresia, present similar physiology, and a comparable surgical challenge.
The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CHSA) provided an opportunity to examine the positive aspects of aging. CHSA-2 included the 18-item Ryff multidimensional measure of well-being, which taps six core theoretical dimensions of positive psychological functioning. The measure was administered to 4,960 seniors without severe cognitive impairment or dementia at CSHA-2. Intercorrelations across scales were generally low. At the same time, the internal consistency reliability of each of the 6 subscales was not found to be high. Confirmatory factor analyses provide support for a 6-factor model, although some items demonstrate poor factor loadings. The well-being measures in CSHA-2 provide an opportunity to examine broad, descriptive patterns of well-being in Canadian seniors.
Nous avons examiné la sécurité du revenu subjective chez les Canadiens de 45 ans et plus à l'aide de données quantitatives. Nous avons étudié la relation entre les variables démographiques, socio-économiques et socio-psychologiques et la sécurité du revenu par le biais d'analyses multidimensionnelles, notamment la possibilité d'une insatisfaction à l'égard du revenu actuel ou prévu. Notre examen porte sur plusieurs résultats imprévus reliés aux effets de l'âge, de la situation maritale et du sexe sur la sécurité du revenu subjective. Cinq théories socio-psychologiques pourraient contribuer à l'explication de ces résultats: la théorie de l'aspiration, la théorie du groupe de référence, la théorie de l'équité, l'examen de la vie et la théorie de la socialisation et de l'identité. Bien que ces théories ne puissent être vérifiées en partant des données utilisées, elles fournissent une orientation de recherche éventuelle. Nous concluons que l'évaluation subjective du revenu adéquat ne doit pas constituer le fondement de l'établissement des politiques sociales de la redistribution du revenu.
While aging is associated with increased health problems and disability, most seniors subjectively rate their health positively, and view aging as a positive period of life evaluation, increased wisdom and maturity. The somewhat paradoxical nature of these findings suggests that later life well-being is multidimensional and variable. Drawing on data from a nationally representative survey, this paper describes the subjective well-being of a sample of Canadian seniors, using the Ryff multidimensional measure of well-being, and investigates the effects of various demographic, health and socio-economic conditions on reported levels of well-being. Seniors’ well-being is robust in terms of the dimension of autonomy, which is resilient to the physical and social circumstances of later life. But, as seniors age, they experience declines in their sense of purpose in life and opportunities for personal growth, in part, due to socio-economic factors. Good health and functional status are important for seniors’ sense of mastery over their surrounding world.
Data from the Survey on Ageing and Independence are employed to test the relationship between stress, integration in close family and friend networks, and well-being with a particular emphasis on parent status. The dependent variables used in this analysis are, whether individuals have a close family member or a close friend, the number of reported close relatives and friends, life stress, and the affect balance scale. It is hypothesized that the zero order relationship often found between parent status and well-being may be due to (1) a fundamental difference in the social support experiences of older parents and older childless individuals, (2) different levels of stress among these groups, or (3) the potential of friends to be of greater importance in assuring well-being in older age than family. Results show that childless persons are less likely than parents to have at least one close family member and they have fewer close relatives. No parent status differences are found regarding the likelihood of having a close friend or in the number of close friends individuals have. Compared to parents, childless individuals experience less life stress and similar levels of well-being. Finally, the nature of the stress-support-well-being relationship appears to be the same regardless of parent status.
Social Models of aging deal with changes over the life course. Using a loose definition of model, this paper reviews models under the following classification: Allocation models; Construction of the Life Course models; Personality and Socialization models; and Negotiation models. Differences between and within these models are explored, with particular reference to the issue of determinism and the conceptualization of social structure. The life course perspective is recognized as hegemonic in contemporary theorizing about aging, but it is seen as itself embracing diverse models.
This paper examines social interaction among seniors in Bermuda, the relationship of various interaction variables with psychological or emotional well-being, and caregiving. The data come from the first ever social science survey conducted among seniors in this country. The findings are compared with selected industrialised countries. Bermudian seniors have strong social ties, somewhat stronger than have been reported in other developed nations. Overwhelmingly, perceived health is related to life satisfaction and functional disability is related to self-esteem among Bermudian seniors. The lack of relationship with social support may well be due to the lack of variation in social support, with virtually everyone having strong social ties. Informal assistance is strong in Bermuda as has been demonstrated for seniors elsewhere. Similarly, the predictors of informal assistance were no surprise, including functional disability, perceptions of health, and having a household member. That is, Bermudian seniors were somewhat distinctive, particularly in their strong social ties, but otherwise appear to be quite similar to seniors in other developed nations. Their geographical isolation and relative small size are believed to be related to their strong social network.