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Doryctobracon areolatus is a native parasitoid of the Neotropical region that presents the highest percentages of natural parasitism of fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha. In the Moscafrut Program SADER-SENASICA, located in Metapa de Domínguez, Chiapas, Mexico, a laboratory colony of this species is maintained on Anastrepha ludens, the Mexican fruit fly, with the aim to scale the production of the parasitoid up to massive levels. In order to eliminate unwanted emergence of adult flies during the rearing process, this study evaluated the effect of irradiation (at doses of 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy) applied to eggs, and first and second instar larvae of A. ludens; all irradiated stages were subsequently exposed as second instar larvae to adult females of D. areolatus. Irradiation did not affect the eclosion of A. ludens eggs but, at doses of 40 and 50 Gy, it did cause delayed larval development and pupation, as well as lower larval weight. Adult fly emergence was suppressed at all doses, except in eggs irradiated at 20 Gy. Doses of 20 and 30 Gy applied to the eggs and larvae did not affect the emergence, survival, fecundity or flight ability of the emerged parasitoids, but the second instar larvae were easily handled during the rearing process. Our results suggest that D. areolatus can be successfully produced in second instar larvae of A. ludens irradiated at 30 Gy.
Motor abnormalities (MAs) are the primary manifestations of schizophrenia. However, the extent to which MAs are related to alterations of subcortical structures remains understudied.
We aimed to investigate the associations of MAs and basal ganglia abnormalities in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 48 right-handed FEP and 23 age-, gender-, handedness-, and educational attainment-matched controls, to obtain basal ganglia shape analysis, diffusion tensor imaging techniques (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity), and relaxometry (R2*) to estimate iron load. A comprehensive motor battery was applied including the assessment of parkinsonism, catatonic signs, and neurological soft signs (NSS). A fully automated model-based segmentation algorithm on 1.5T MRI anatomical images and accurate corregistration of diffusion and T2* volumes and R2* was used.
FEP patients showed significant local atrophic changes in left globus pallidus nucleus regarding controls. Hypertrophic changes in left-side caudate were associated with higher scores in sensory integration, and in right accumbens with tremor subscale. FEP patients showed lower fractional anisotropy measures than controls but no significant differences regarding mean diffusivity and iron load of basal ganglia. However, iron load in left basal ganglia and right accumbens correlated significantly with higher extrapyramidal and motor coordination signs in FEP patients.
Taken together, iron load in left basal ganglia may have a role in the emergence of extrapyramidal signs and NSS of FEP patients and in consequence in the pathophysiology of psychosis.
This study aimed at identifying linguistic factors that could contribute to understanding individual differences in executive control among bilinguals. Directionality and type of natural language switching, age of second language acquisition, and language proficiency were evaluated in a sample of 112 early bilingual adults. Participants performed several computerized tasks tapping into three dimensions of executive control: inhibition of interference, working memory updating, and shifting. Regression analyses showed that frequent switching to the second language was associated with more efficient executive processing, enhanced working memory updating processes, and better shifting ability. Moreover, higher frequency of unintended language switches was associated with lower interference control abilities. Frequency of language switching behavior was the principal predictor of executive control, beyond age of second language acquisition and language proficiency. Results suggest that frequent language switching is related to enhanced executive control, while the unintended switching of languages could be associated with low interference control.
Tuberous sclerosis complex is a rare genetic disorder leading to the growth of hamartomas in multiple organs, including cardiac rhabdomyomas. Children with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma require frequent admissions to intensive care units, have major complications, namely, arrhythmias, cardiac outflow tract obstruction and heart failure, affecting the quality of life and taking on high healthcare cost. Currently, there is no standard pharmacological treatment for this condition, and the management includes a conservative approach and supportive care. Everolimus has shown positive effects on subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, renal angiomyolipoma and refractory seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. However, evidence supporting efficacy in symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma is limited to case reports. The ORACLE trial is the first randomised clinical trial assessing the efficacy of everolimus as a specific therapy for symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma.
ORACLE is a phase II, prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre protocol trial. A total of 40 children with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma secondary to tuberous sclerosis complex will be randomised to receive oral everolimus or placebo for 3 months. The primary outcome is 50% or more reduction in the tumour size related to baseline. As secondary outcomes we include the presence of arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, intracardiac obstruction, adverse events, progression of tumour reduction and effect on heart failure.
ORACLE protocol addresses a relevant unmet need in children with tuberous sclerosis complex and cardiac rhabdomyoma. The results of the trial will potentially support the first evidence-based therapy for this condition.
Disturbed sleep and activity are prominent features of bipolar disorder type I (BP-I). However, the relationship of sleep and activity characteristics to brain structure and behavior in euthymic BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives is unknown. Additionally, underlying genetic relationships between these traits have not been investigated.
Relationships between sleep and activity phenotypes, assessed using actigraphy, with structural neuroimaging (brain) and cognitive and temperament (behavior) phenotypes were investigated in 558 euthymic individuals from multi-generational pedigrees including at least one member with BP-I. Genetic correlations between actigraphy-brain and actigraphy-behavior associations were assessed, and bivariate linkage analysis was conducted for trait pairs with evidence of shared genetic influences.
More physical activity and longer awake time were significantly associated with increased brain volumes and cortical thickness, better performance on neurocognitive measures of long-term memory and executive function, and less extreme scores on measures of temperament (impulsivity, cyclothymia). These associations did not differ between BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. For nine activity-brain or activity-behavior pairs there was evidence for shared genetic influence (genetic correlations); of these pairs, a suggestive bivariate quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 for wake duration and verbal working memory was identified.
Our findings indicate that increased physical activity and more adequate sleep are associated with increased brain size, better cognitive function and more stable temperament in BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. Additionally, we found evidence for pleiotropy of several actigraphy-behavior and actigraphy-brain phenotypes, suggesting a shared genetic basis for these traits.
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of anatomical changes in prostate cancer patients on the target coverage when using 6 MV beams-VMAT therapy and to propose strategies that allow us to evaluate the dose or correct it by normalization without having to perform a new simulation.
Methods and materials:
Ten patients of high-risk prostate cancer were chosen for the study. All test plans were delivered using the same isocenter and monitor units as the original plan and compared against the original unedited plan. The expansion and contraction of body contours due to size changes was mimicked by increasing and decreasing the body contour with depths of −2, −1·5, …, 1·5, 2 cm, in the anterior, and both lateral directions of the patient. A total of 90 plans were evaluated, 9 for each patient. Dose-volume histogram statistics were extracted from each plan and normalized to prescription dose.
Weight changes resulted in considerable dose modifications to the target and critical structures. Plans were found to be varied with 2·9% ± 0·3% per cm SSD change for VMAT treatment with a correlation index close to one. Therefore, doses variations were linear to the changes of depth. Gamma index evaluation was performed for the 10 renormalized plans. All of them passed criteria of 3%/3 mm in at least 98.2% of points. Eight of them passed criteria in 99% points. Gamma index 4%/4 mm passed 100% points in all patients for the chosen region of interest.
The dosimetry estimation presented in this study shows important data for the radiation oncology staff to justify whether a CT rescan is necessary or not when a patient experiences weight changes during treatment. Based on the results of our study, discrepancies between real dose and planned dose were >5% for 1·7 cm of difference in external contour in the anterior and both lateral directions of the patient.
Organic farming is believed by many to be an environmentally friendly production system that promotes the use of local forage while strongly limiting the input of chemicals, including allopathic treatments. As organic dairy farming has grown, farmers have realised that many available conventional breeds of cow are not well adapted to the new situations and that more ‘robust’ cows, able to function well in the constraining organic environment, are needed to yield acceptable longevity and productivity. In this review paper, the current breed diversity in organic dairy farming is analysed with the aim of identifying the types of cow that would best fulfil organic breeding goals. Unlike the conventional sector, organic dairy farming is very heterogeneous and no single type of cow can adapt well to all scenarios. There are advantages and disadvantages to the use of existing breeds (rustic Holstein-Friesian, other rustic breeds and crosses), and strong genotype × environment interactions demand different strategies for very diverse situations. Organic dairy farms producing milk for systems that recompense milk volume would benefit from using higher milk yielding cows, and rustic Holstein-Friesian cows may be the best option in such cases. Although most Holstein-Friesian cows are currently selected for use in conventional systems, this situation could be reversed by the implementation of an organic merit index that includes organic breeding goals. Farms producing milk either for systems that recompense milk solids or for transformation into dairy products would benefit from using breeds other than Holstein-Friesian or their crosses. Organic farmers who focus on rural tourism, farm schools or other businesses in which marketing strategies must be taken into account could benefit from using local breeds (when possible) or other rustic breeds that are highly valued by consumers.
To study zooplankton–phytoplankton relationships in the diatom-dominated plankton communities of the northern Adriatic we performed feeding experiments with diatoms and zoea I larvae of the brachyuran Xantho poressa. We found that zoea I of X. poressa feed on diatoms of different forms (centric, pennate, colony forming, single celled, with or without setae) and size classes. In a laboratory setup, we presented the zoeas with a mix of diatom species similar to communities observed during blooms regularly found in the northern Adriatic. We report that the grazing activity resulted in a decrease of the relative abundance of the toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha. For the colonial, bloom-forming diatom Skeletonema marinoi our results show a chain length reduction in the presence of zoea I. Of particular interest is the observation that the presence of larvae also resulted in an increased growth rate and abundance of S. marinoi, which resembles bloom induction by grazer presence.
Little is known about potential harmful effects as a consequence of self-guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT), such as symptom deterioration rates. Thus, safety concerns remain and hamper the implementation of self-guided iCBT into clinical practice. We aimed to conduct an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of clinically significant deterioration (symptom worsening) in adults with depressive symptoms who received self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions. Several socio-demographic, clinical and study-level variables were tested as potential moderators of deterioration.
Randomised controlled trials that reported results of self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions in adults with symptoms of depression were selected. Mixed effects models with participants nested within studies were used to examine possible clinically significant deterioration rates.
Thirteen out of 16 eligible trials were included in the present IPD meta-analysis. Of the 3805 participants analysed, 7.2% showed clinically significant deterioration (5.8% and 9.1% of participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively). Participants in self-guided iCBT were less likely to deteriorate (OR 0.62, p < 0.001) compared with control conditions. None of the examined participant- and study-level moderators were significantly associated with deterioration rates.
Self-guided iCBT has a lower rate of negative outcomes on symptoms than control conditions and could be a first step treatment approach for adult depression as well as an alternative to watchful waiting in general practice.
The present investigation focused on evaluating the effects of different amounts of precipitates on tension and hardness properties of a Ti–6Al–4V alloy, for this, two sets of samples with bimodal and equiaxed microstructures were obtained by heat treatment process. After this, the samples were aged at 545 °C for holding times of 100 and 200 h. Observation of the aged samples in the scanning electron microscope revealed fine α2 (Ti3Al) particles precipitating in the α matrix of the alloy. Uni-axial tension tests and Vickers microhardness measurements were conducted on the unaged and aged samples. Experimental results show that ultimate strength and hardness of bimodal and equiaxed microstructures are significantly affected by the heat treatment applied to produce such microstructures. Also, it was found that the precipitation of α2 particles drastically reduced the plastic response of the Ti–6Al–4V alloy.
The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a well-established measure of panic symptoms but few data exist on this instrument in non north-American samples. Our main goal was to assess the psychometric properties (internal consistency, test re-test reliability, inter-rater reliability, convergent and divergent validity) and the factor structure of the Spanish version. Ninety-four patients with a main diagnosis of panic disorder were assessed with the Spanish version of PDSS, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index–3 (ASI-3), the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) the PDSS self-rating form and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI). The Spanish PDSS showed acceptable internal consistency (α = .74), excellent test-retest (total score and items 1–6: α > .58, p < .01) and inter-rater reliability (most intraclass correlation coefficient values for the total score were > .90) and medium to large convergent validity (r = .68, 95% CI [.54, .79], p < .01; r = .80, 95% CI [.70, .87], p < .01; r = .48, 95% CI [.28, .67], p < .01; BAI, PAS and ASI–3 total scores respectively). Data on divergent validity (BDI-II total score: r = .52, 95% CI [.34, .67], p < .01) suggest some need for refinement of the PDSS. The confirmatory factor analysis suggested a two-factor modified model for the scale (nested χ2 = 14.01, df = 12, p < .001). The Spanish PDSS has similar psychometric properties as the previous versions and is a useful instrument to assess panic symptoms in clinical settings in Spanish-speaking populations.
Transition metal dichalcogenides such as WS2 show exciting promise in electronic and optoelectronic applications. Significant variations in the transport, Raman, and photoluminescence (PL) can be found in the literature, yet it is rarely addressed why this is. In this report, Raman and PL of monolayered WS2 produced via different methods are studied and distinct features that indicate the degree of crystallinity of the material are observed. While the intensity of the LA(M) Raman mode is found to be a useful indicator to assess the crystallinity, PL is drastically more sensitive to the quality of the material than Raman spectroscopy. We also show that even exfoliated crystals, which are usually regarded as the most pristine material, can contain large amounts of defects that would not be apparent without Raman and PL measurements. These findings can be applied to the understanding of other two-dimensional heterostructured systems.
Here we report on the photocurrent response of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures of sputtered MoS2 on boron nitride (BN) deposited on (001)-oriented Si substrates. The steady state photocurrent (Iph) measurements used a continuous laser of λ = 658 nm (E = 1.88 eV) over a broad range of laser intensities, P (∼1 μW < P < 10 μW), and indicate that Iph obtained from MoS2 layers with the 80 nm BN under layer was ∼4 times higher than that obtained from MoS2 layers with the 30 nm BN under layer. We also found super linear dependence of Iph on P (Iph ∝ Pγ, with γ > 1) in both the samples. The responsivities obtained over the range of laser intensity studied were in the order of mA/W (∼12 and ∼2.7 mA/W with 80 nm BN and 30 nm BN under layers, respectively). These investigations provide crucial insight into the optical activity of MoS2 on BN, which could be useful for developing a variety of optoelectronic applications with MoS2 or other 2D transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures.
In this work, we studied the synthesis of biodegradable copolymers of the type poly(isobutyl vinyl ether)-co-(ε-caprolactone) (PIBVE-co-PCL) using a homogeneous mono-cyclopentadienyltitanium catalyst and methylaluminoxane (MAO) as co-catalyst. These copolymers can also be used as plasticizers for flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), improving its thermal properties. The copolymer PIBVE-co-PCL could be synthesized with a high conversion (>90%). The use of 39 wt.% of the copolymer in the formulation of PVC decreases its glass transition temperature (Tg) by -6.51 °C. By varying the copolymer composition it is possible to obtain PVC with different Tg values that could be used for different applications. A particular application where one could use this type of copolymer is in PVC formulations for the fabrication of blood bags. The toxicity of dioctyl phthalate (DOP), which is the more commonly used plasticizer for PVC, limits the use of these formulations for the mentioned purpose. The PVC plasticized with the biodegradable copolymer showed an increase in the degradation temperature, improving the thermal stability of the PVC formulation in comparison with the phthalates usually used as plasticizers.
As is well known, the corrosion of embedded steel reinforced depends strongly of the concrete resistivity, which is related directly with the water contained into its porous network. Environment plays an important role on resistivity, due to have a direct correspondence with the relative humidity and temperature. In these terms, ingress or output of water is favored or hampered by the environmental parameters, as well as its fluctuations. This work presents a proposal of instrumented system to generate a map of electrical resistivity at concrete samples by using superficial and embedded electrodes. Mathematical analysis of equivalent circuit revealed the importance of the impedance of electrodes utilized, to simplify measures. Concrete samples were exposed to different relative humidity focused to try to obtain the relation between relative humidity and resistivity. An array of two electrodes distributed in a matrix was manufactured to apply a signal of direct current at first electrode and measure the resultant current at second electrode. The system applies a programmed sequence of switch to turn on and turn off to realize measurements over established zone and, in this form, allows identify zones with potentials gradients. Also, do easy the monitoring of concrete resistivity evolution in function of time and humidity conditions.