At present most medical microprobe analysis is conducted on insoluble particulates such as asbestos fibers in lung tissue. Cryotechniques are not necessary for this type of specimen. Insoluble particulates can be processed conventionally Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize that conventional processing is unacceptable for specimens in which electrolyte distributions in tissues are sought. It is necessary to flash-freeze in order to preserve the integrity of electrolyte distributions at the subcellular and cellular level. Ideally, biopsies should be flash-frozen in the operating room rather than being frozen several minutes later in a histology laboratory. Electrolytes will move during such a long delay. While flammable cryogens such as propane obviously cannot be used in an operating room, liquid nitrogen-cooled slam-freezing devices or guns may be permitted, and are the best way to achieve an artifact-free, accurate tissue sample which truly reflects the in vivo state. Unfortunately, the importance of cryofixation is often not understood.