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Harpidium longisporum is proposed as a new species. It is characterized by an areolate, mainly black thallus with trebouxioid algae, K+ blue-purple pigmented parts, pycnoascocarps forming aspicilioid apothecia, with moniliform paraphyses, unitunicate-rostrate, thick-walled asci and long sigmoid, lunate to falcate or irregularly curved and twisted ascospores, growing on steps of a vertical, intermittently moist, gneiss rock face. The genus Harpidium now comprises four species worldwide and, based on the selected specimens, a genus synopsis, a comparative table and a key to the species are included.
The species of the Parmelia saxatilis complex occurring in the Iberian Peninsula were revised. Eight species are accepted, including a new species found in southern Spain, described as P. rojoi A. Crespo, V. J. Rico & Divakar. The new species, which forms a sister-group relationship with P. saxatilis s. str., is rare in the Iberian Peninsula and is restricted to higher altitudes of northern and central Spain. Parmelia rojoi differs from P. saxatilis by generally narrower isidia and a more fragile thallus. The segregation of the new species is also supported by ITS (rDNA) and Mcm7 (MS456) phylogeny and multispecies coalescent-based approaches, including StarBEAST and BP&P. Furthermore, the divergence of P. rojoi is dated back to the Pleistocene, c. 2.13 Ma. A key to the identification of species from the P. saxatilis complex with their diagnostic features is provided. All species of the complex known from Europe are also found in the Iberian Peninsula. We hypothesize that P. rojoi is a relict species that survived the Pleistocene glaciations in refugia in Spain and has been unable to extend its distributional range in postglacial periods.
Hypotrachyna is a speciose genus of primarily tropical and oceanic lichen-forming fungi. It includes species with distinct distribution patterns, such as pantropical, restricted and disjunct species. We used a dataset of mitochondrial SSU, nuclear ITS and LSU ribosomal DNA from 89 specimens to study the historical biogeography of the genus. We employed Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches for phylogenetic analyses, a likelihood-based approach to ancestral area estimation, and a Bayesian approach to estimate divergence times of major lineages within the genus based on molecular evolutionary rates for ITS and a secondary calibration point at the Hypotrachyna clade – Parmeliopsis split. Our analyses suggest that the genus might have originated in the Neotropics during the Eocene and that the split of major lineages happened primarily during the Eocene and Oligocene. The major diversification within those clades is estimated to have occurred during the Miocene. Pantropical species distributions are explained by long-distance dispersal. A number of currently accepted species were found to be non-monophyletic, illustrating that the delimitation of species in the genus needs attention.
The results of the first molecular phylogenetic study of Pseudephebe are presented; a three-locus phylogeny. The genus is confirmed as monophyletic within the alectorioid clade of Parmeliaceae. Two major clades were recovered, which can be assigned to the two traditional taxa, P. minuscula and P. pubescens, with modifications of the species delimitation, especially the variable P. minuscula. These species are cryptic and cannot be confidently distinguished morphologically due to phenotypic convergence. Therefore, the use of P. pubescens aggr. is recommended for samples not molecularly analyzed. Contrary to previous studies, specimens of both species might have indistinct pseudocyphellae and also contain lichen substances; norstictic acid was detected in c. 60% of specimens tested. An SSU 1516 Group I intron is usually present in P. minuscula but always absent in P. pubescens. The species-level nomenclature is summarized and sequenced reference specimens (RefSpec) for both Pseudephebe species are selected. Sequences from Bryoria mariensis established that this name was a synonym of P. minuscula.
Bryoria araucana sp. nov. is described from Chile on the basis of morphological, chemical and molecular data. It has a grey to dark greyish brown pendent thallus with the base usually black, branching angles mainly obtuse, terminal branches with few lateral branchlets acutely inserted, fumarprotocetraric acid, and often protocetraric and confumarprotocetraric acids. It is morphologically similar to the Northern Hemisphere B. trichodes, but lacks soralia and has inconspicuous concolorous or slightly darker pseudocyphellae. Bryoria glabra is also reported for the first time from the Southern Hemisphere. New phylogenetic data based on ITS, mtSSU and MCM7 analyses suggest that Bryoria sect. Bryoria is polyphyletic and needs revision.
In order to confirm and investigate the extent of reported mismatches between chemotypes and molecular sequence data in Bryoria fuscescens s. lat., we examined 15 morphologically similar thalli from each of three Pinus forest sites in the Sistema Central of central Spain. Three thalli were rejected due to infections by Phacopsis huuskonenii (not previously published from Spain). The remaining 42 thalli represented nine ITS rDNA haplotypes and four chemotypes (by TLC): fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids; norstictic and connorstictic acids; psoromic acid; and fumarprotocetraric, protocetraric and psoromic acids. The molecular phylogenetic tree was characterized by extremely short branch lengths, often only with a single mutational difference, and a single haplotype could have different chemical products. In some cases, adjacent specimens represented different chemotypes, and three thalli appeared to be mixed individuals. Consistency of both molecular and chemical data within individual specimens was demonstrated by examining four different parts of each thallus, which showed only a difference in the location of psoromic acid in some. This is the first population-level study of this taxon, and so it is premature to propose taxonomic changes at this time. Further populations in different parts of the geographical range of this widespread complex now need to be analyzed, and more sensitive chemical analyses conducted, in order to understand the basis of the variability and determine the appropriate taxonomic treatment.
This paper presents a systematic approach to compute the angularity and the axiality indices for a Schönflies parallel manipulator. Angularity index may be considered as a measure of the sensitivity of the mobile platform to changes in rotation, while axiality index can be used to measure the sensitivity of the OP of the mobile platform to changes in translation. Since both indices were inspired by very fundamental concepts of classical kinematics (angular velocity vector and helicoidal velocity field), they offer a clear and simple physical meaning, which may be useful to the designer of parallel manipulators. Moreover, both dexterity indices do not require obtaining a dimensionally homogeneous Jacobian matrix, nor do they depend on having similar types of actuators in each manipulator's leg. Detailed numerical examples are given in order to illustrate the computation of the dexterity indices.
Heteroacanthella ellipsospora is described as new to science. It is the only known lichenicolous Heteroacanthella, always found parasitizing apothecia and the surrounding thallus of the crustose epiphytic lichen Lecanora carpinea. The new parasite has so far only been found in two Spanish provinces, Jaén and Madrid. The shape and size of its basidiospores, the basidia with acanthoid ornamentation, acanthohyphidia, as well as its parasitic lichenicolous habitat, with a replacement of host tissues by the parasite hymenium, are useful diagnostic characters.
The relationship of Aspicilia uxoris within Megasporaceae is assessed within a phylogenetic context. ‘Aspicilia’ uxoris and other related species are recovered as sister to the genus Lobothallia s. str. and described here as a new genus. Teuvoa (Ascomycota, Megasporaceae) is erected based on nuclear ITS and LSU sequence data and morphological characters. In addition to Teuvoa uxoris, a second species, T. junipericola, is added to the new genus based on material collected from North America. Teuvoa junipericola, T. uxoris and T. tibetica form a group with 8-spored asci, absence of extrolites, rather short-sized conidia and ascospores, lack of a subhypothecial algal layer, and different substratum preferences (on organic substratum) with a sister relationship to genus Lobothallia s. lat. (Aspicilia subgenus Pachyothallia Clauzade & C. Roux). Based on spore measurements of the holotypes, Lecanora ferganensis Tomin from central Asia (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan), Lecanora atrodiscata Gintovt, from Tajikistan and Lecanora takyroides Dzhur. from Turkmenistan are new synonyms to T. uxoris. A lectotype for Lecanora ferganensis is designated, expanding the known distribution of T. uxoris from Algeria, Morocco and Spain, into Central Asia.
The cetrarioid core group has been the focus of numerous taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in recent years, yet the phylogenetic resolution and support among these clades remains unclear. Here we use four commonly employed loci to estimate if their use increases phylogenetic resolution and support. The present study largely confirms the topologies of previous studies, but with increased support. Approximately half of the genera in the cetrarioid core were not monophyletic. Melanelia sorediella was clustered within Cetrariella, and the combination Cetrariella sorediella (Lettau) V. J. Rico & A. Thell comb. nov. is made. Additionally, the genus Flavocetrariella was supported as part of Nephromopsis and is considered to be a synonym of the latter. Finally, a comparison of genetic distances shows that the maximum intrageneric genetic distance encompassed by many cetrarioid genera is lower than that of many other genera in Parmeliaceae.
Tremella macrobasidiata is a proposed new species for a lichenicolous heterobasidomycete strictly parasitizing the hymenium of Lecanora chlarotera. It is reported from Spain, and is characterized by large and particularly variable basidia, rather large basidiospores and the production of asteroconidia, forming brownish to dark green galls in the specific host apothecia. The presence of asteroconidia is discussed. Comparisons with closely related lichenicolous Tremella species are also provided.
Aspicilia uxoris is proposed as a new combination for a species known from Algeria, Morocco and Spain. It grows on bark and lignum of Cedrus atlantica, Juniperus spp. and Pinus halepensis in the western Mediterranean Region. It is characterized by spore and conidia sizes, granular epihymenium on the surface of paraphyses and a typical apothecial structure and development. The ecology and distribution of the species and a comparison with other epiphytic taxa of the genus are discussed. Notes on the identity of Aspicilia lignicola are provided. Lectotypes for Aspicilia cinerea var. vulgaris f. lignicola, Lecanora lignicola and Lecanora uxoris are designated.
Caloplaca squamuloisidiata van den Boom & V. J. Rico is described as new to science. It is a saxicolous species, pale green to grey, with olivaceous patches, with a rimose-areolate, squamulose, lobulate and isidiate thallus, growing on inland exposed acid rock faces in the western half of the Iberian Peninsula in the Mediterranean region. Its ecology and distribution, and the lichen communities in which it was found are presented. A key to the isidiate and granular-isidiate Caloplaca species in Western Europe is also included.
Changing land use has a major impact on lichen diversity. This study attempts to identify patterns or trends of lichen functional groups along a land use gradient, ranging from natural forests to open agricultural landscape. In eight countries, covering six main European biogeographic regions, lichen vegetation was assessed according to a standardized scheme. Data on reproductive, vegetative and ecological traits was compiled and relative species richness for all classes of all traits calculated. Relationships between the land use gradient and relative species richness of trait classes were analysed. Open and intensively managed landscapes harbour more fertile species while sterile species are relatively more important in forests. This finding is also supported by analyses of different classes of dispersal propagules. The importance of species with the principal photobiont Trebouxia s.l. increases linearly with intensification of land use. A converse pattern is revealed by species with Trentepohlia. Concerning substratum specialization only generalists show an effect along the land use intensity gradient. Their relative species richness decreases from landscapes dominated by forests to open agricultural landscape. A considerable decline in the rare lichen species richness as a result of land intensification is predicted.
Lichen material from the Iberian Peninsula of Melanelia commixta, M. hepatizon and M. sorediella has been studied and compared on the basis of morphology, chemistry, habitat and distribution. The new combination Melanelia sorediella is proposed and Cetraria commixta f. sorediella is lectotypified. Chemotypes I and III have been detected in M. commixta. Melanelia sorediella is characterized mainly by the formation of pycnoisidia and soralia-like structures in the lamina and margins of the thallus and by the absence of pseudocyphellae and apothecia. The pycnoisidium is here described as a combination of isidia-like proliferations of the thallus surface containing pycnidia, carrying algae and acting as vegetative symbiotic propagules. Non detached pycnoisidia grow into lobuli in central parts of the thallus, regenerating it. Pycnoisidia, soralia-like areas and lobuli are formed as a consequence of pycnidia development. Melanelia sorediella is morphologically and chemically close to M. commixta and is currently known from mountains of central and south-west Europe where it grows on acid rocks. In south-western Europe, the meridional limit of the distribution of the three species studied seems to be located in the mountains of the central part of the Iberian Peninsula (Sistema Central Ibérico). Relevant data on the three species are provided and a key is also included.