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We demonstrate high efficiency second harmonic generation (SHG) of near infrared femtosecond pulses using a
crystal in a single-pass tight focusing geometry setup. A frequency doubling efficiency of
is achieved, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest value ever reported in the femtosecond regime for such low energy (nJ-level) pumping pulses. Theoretical analyses of the pumping scheme focusing waist and the SHG efficiency are performed, by numerically solving the three wave mixing coupled equations in the plane-wave scenario and by running simulations with a commercial full 3D code. Simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data regarding both the efficiency and the pulse spectral profile. The simulated SHG pulse temporal profile presents the characteristic features of the group velocity mismatch broadening in a ‘thick’ crystal.
Based on an unexplored data set on disasters in Brazil, the current study shows that the direct damage of natural disasters reduces the GDP growth rate of municipal economies in Ceará state, Northeast Brazil. The agriculture and service sectors are the most affected economic sectors, while the industrial sector remains unaffected by environmental shocks. Economic growth is particularly responsive to the occurrence of large natural disasters that lead municipalities to declare a state of emergency or public calamity. Regarding public policies, water supply infrastructure increases the resilience of the output growth of services to droughts, whereas disaster microinsurance helps to mitigate the effects of droughts and floods on the economic growth of agriculture in a Brazilian state where family farming is predominant and highly vulnerable to natural disasters.
Due to its excellent optical properties, gold nanomaterials with anisotropic morphology are playing an important role in biomedical applications, specifically in the use of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) technique for biological assays. In this work, we verified the behavior of the star shape nanoparticle peaks obtained by chemical synthesis (precursor reactant: HAuCl4, cationic surfactant: CTAB) and whose peaks were formed from the different concentrations of gold seeds (55, 65, 75 and 85 ul) which were added to the total solution (5.275 ml). The shape and size of the nanoparticles was verified with a Hitachi S-5500 microscope with a BF & DF SEM / STEM detector, and for the diameter distribution (hydrodynamic) was carried out by the dynamic light distribution technique with a Malvern DLS system Zetasizer Nano ZS. Particle sizes (peak-to-peak considering) were obtained with variations from 107 to 166 nm. The results suggest adding 75 ul of gold seeds to obtain uniform nanostars with well defined peaks. These gold nano-stars could be applied for identification of specific membrane markers for the study of different types of cancer by the SERS technique.
Observations show that glaciers around the world are in retreat and losing mass. Internationally coordinated for over a century, glacier monitoring activities provide an unprecedented dataset of glacier observations from ground, air and space. Glacier studies generally select specific parts of these datasets to obtain optimal assessments of the mass-balance data relating to the impact that glaciers exercise on global sea-level fluctuations or on regional runoff. In this study we provide an overview and analysis of the main observational datasets compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS). The dataset on glacier front variations (∼42 000 since 1600) delivers clear evidence that centennial glacier retreat is a global phenomenon. Intermittent readvance periods at regional and decadal scale are normally restricted to a subsample of glaciers and have not come close to achieving the maximum positions of the Little Ice Age (or Holocene). Glaciological and geodetic observations (∼5200 since 1850) show that the rates of early 21st-century mass loss are without precedent on a global scale, at least for the time period observed and probably also for recorded history, as indicated also in reconstructions from written and illustrated documents. This strong imbalance implies that glaciers in many regions will very likely suffer further ice loss, even if climate remains stable.
This paper analyzes the research strategies of three different cases in the study of human genetics in Mexico – the work of Rubén Lisker in the 1960s, INMEGEN's mapping of Mexican genomic diversity between 2004 and 2009, and the analysis of Native American variation by Andrés Moreno and his colleagues in contemporary research. We make a distinction between an approach that incorporates multiple disciplinary resources into sampling design and interpretation (unpacking), from one that privileges pragmatic considerations over more robust multidisciplinary analysis (flattening). These choices have consequences for social, demographic, and biomedical practices, and also for accounts of genetic variation in human populations. While the former strategy unpacks fine-grained genetic variation – favoring precision and realism, the latter tends to flatten individual differences and historical depth in lieu of generalization.
The Laboratory for Intense Lasers (L2I) is a research centre in optics and lasers dedicated to experimental research in high intensity laser science and technology and laser plasma interaction. Currently the laboratory is undergoing an upgrade with the goal of increasing the versatility of the laser systems available to the users, as well as increasing the pulse repetition rate. In this paper we review the current status of the laser research and development programme of this facility, namely the upgraded capability and the recent progress towards the installation of an ultrashort, diode-pumped OPCPA laser system.
Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarcticus) show little sexual dimorphism and sexing by direct observation can be difficult. Through molecular techniques, male and female adults were identified at Stinker Point, Elephant Island, South Shetland Islands, in the 2011–12 and 2012–13 breeding seasons. In the assessment of sexual dimorphism using morphological characteristics, males were 6.0–9.4% larger than females. From the most significant morphological measurements, a discriminant function was formulated that classified 80.6% of the birds correctly. In addition, our data on bill length and depth were compared with those in the literature to evaluate sexual dimorphism between different breeding locations and to test the performance of the discriminant function. There were no differences in sexual dimorphism between breeding locations. However, the discriminant function should be used with caution because some penguins may be misclassified. Therefore, when there is doubt about the accuracy of morphometric approaches, application of molecular sexing techniques is recommended.
We have carried out photometry and spectroscopy on a sample of 10 cD galaxies. The photometry shows, in general, fairly flat and red profile colours, implying an envelope with the same stellar population as the central galaxy. This may indicate a possible primordial origin for both structures, consistent with ideas of downsizing. Preliminary spectroscopic results are generally in agreement with the photometry, with for example younger populations at large radii for A2199, but A2589 has only younger populations.
Introduction. Optimising agricultural water use implies the
combination of physiological, technological and engineering techniques, especially those
for continuously monitoring the water status of plants subjected to deficit irrigation. A
methodology to estimate water stress of young almond trees from thermal images was
developed based on assessing the physiological status of almond crops under limited
water-supply conditions. Materials and methods. Two irrigation treatments
were tested during the maximum evapotranspirative demand period (214th to the 243rd day of
the year) in an experimental almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb, cv.
Guara] orchard: a low-frequency deficit irrigation (LFDI) treatment, irrigated according
to the plant-water status, and a fully irrigated treatment (C100) at 100% of crop
evapotranspiration. Daily canopy temperature at midday (TC) was measured with an infrared
camera, together with standard measurements of stem-water potential (ΨStem) and stomatal
conductance (gS). The time course of these parameters and their relationships were
analysed. Results and discussion. The time course of the parameters studied
showed highly significant correlations among the differentials of canopy-air temperature
(ΔT), ΨStem and gS. The methodological protocol for analysing thermal images allowed a
time saving in processing information and additionally offered the possibility of
estimating the ΨStem and gS values. Conclusion. Our results confirm that
infrared thermography is a suitable technique for assessing the crop-water status and can
be used as an important step towards automated plant-water stress management in almond
cD galaxies are supergiant elliptical galaxies found generally in the central parts of rich clusters, which have an extended halo-like component (envelope) in addition to the underlying de Vaucouleurs-Sérsic elliptical galaxy-like component. This envelope can extend to radial distances of > 500 kpc (Oemler 1976, Schombert 1988). There have been many theories to explain the formation of these envelopes. These include tidal stripping, where material is stripped from neighbouring galaxies; mergers and fusions, where the envelope is built up hierarchically by successive mergers with large and small galaxies; primordial origin, where the envelope is formed at the same time as the rest of the elliptical galaxy (which appears to be related to theories of early formation of the largest galaxies); and cooling flows: in clusters with X-ray emission there is often a minimum temperature in the centre interpreted as a flow of cooling gas towards the centre of the cluster, where the gas can cool sufficiently, forming stars. The colours of the stars in the envelopes will be affected by their process of formation and subsequent evolution.
The implementation of an international programme for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) can help to mitigate climate change and bring numerous benefits to environmental conservation. Information on land change modelling and carbon mapping can contribute to quantify future carbon emissions from deforestation. However limitations in data availability and technical capabilities may constitute an obstacle for countries interested in participating in the REDD programme. This paper evaluates the influence of quantity and allocation of mapped carbon stocks and expected deforestation on the prediction of carbon emissions from deforestation. The paper introduces the conceptual space where quantity and allocation are involved in predicting carbon emissions, and then uses the concepts to predict carbon emissions in the Brazilian Amazon, using previously published information about carbon mapping and deforestation modelling. Results showed that variation in quantity of carbon among carbon maps was the most influential component of uncertainty, followed by quantity of predicted deforestation. Spatial allocation of carbon within carbon maps was less influential than quantity of carbon in the maps. For most of the carbon maps, spatial allocation of deforestation had a minor but variable effect on the prediction of carbon emissions relative to the other components. The influence of spatial carbon allocation reaches its maximum when 50% of the initial forest area is deforested. The method can be applied to other case studies to evaluate the interacting effects of quantity and allocation of carbon with future deforestation on the prediction of carbon emissions from deforestation.
Lead is an engineering material used mainly in the manufacturing of lead-acid batteries for the automotive industry. Lead recovery from exhausted batteries is carried out by the pyrometallurgical route by injecting sulfur the powder reagent through a lance into the lead bath. In this work a mathematical simulation was carried out on the copper drossing process with the software COMSOL 3.4. A kinetic study of the injection process of the lance-kettle system was carried out. The copper concentration profiles were obtained according with the injection rate of the particles. The best conditions for the copper drossing process were an injection rate of 3.31 m/s at 380°C. The modeling results were validated with experimental results obtaining good agreement.
Introduction Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a crop of major economic importance in the provinces of Malaga and Granada (SE Spain). A field experiment on mango trees was designed to determine the optimum irrigation scheduling over three seasons. The aim was to evaluate the impact of sustained-deficit irrigation (SDI) strategies on fruit yield and quality, tree growth, and mineral status under a Mediterranean subtropical climate. Materials and methods. Three sustained-deficit irrigation treatments were applied to mango trees: SDI-1 (33% ETc), SDI-2 (50% ETc) and SDI-3 (75% ETc). The stress treatments were compared with a control (C-100) irrigated at 100% ETC. The response of fruit yield, number of fruits, fruit size and quality, and macro- and micronutrients in leaves was determined. Results. The SDI-2 treatment proved to be the most appropriate SDI treatment, since it allowed the trees to reach the highest yield (18.4 t·ha-1) and the best water-use efficiency (7.14 kg·m-3). However, fruit size was higher for trees of the SDI-3 and C-100 treatments, since they reached significantly higher length and width. The total soluble solids were affected by the SDI treatments only for one year, being highest in fruits from trees of the SDI-1 and SDI-2 treatments. Macro- and micronutrients in the leaves were affected by the SDI treatment only for the P, Mg and Mn contents. Conclusion The SDI treatment providing 50% of ETC is recommended for mango orchards in order to attain the highest yields and the best water-use efficiency under a Mediterranean subtropical climate.
Two species of Scolelepis were found off the Venezuelan coast, one of these is a new record for this region, and the other is a species new to science: Scolelepis (Scolelepis) lighti Delgado-Blas, 2006, and Scolelepis (S.) andradei sp. nov., respectively. Scolelepis (Scolelepis) lighti was previously known only from the Gulf of Mexico and Florida, but the Venezuelan specimens closely match the original description. Scolelepis (S.) andradei is distinguished by the fusion of the anterior and posterior branchiae to the notopodial lamellae, bidentate notopodial hooded hooks starting from setigers 23–29, and the absence of notopodial hooks.
Our natural world is on the verge of a profound loss of biological diversity (Crooks and Sanjayan Chapter 1). Although the economic, cultural, and spiritual costs of this ecological impoverishment are enormous and irreversible, from a human point of view extinction's denouement appears to be “slow-motion.” This slow-motion results in a limited recognition of its urgency and the very little time we have to prevent it from occurring. As evident in this volume, the threats cut across multiple scales of ecological organization, from genes and species all the way to ecological processes. To face this complex challenge, action plans to avoid extinction must become more comprehensive, including strategies to preserve both areas and ecological and evolutionary processes, as well as those targeted to avoid the foreseeable extinction of particular threatened species.
One comprehensive regional-scale approach with great promise for effective conservation is based on the concept of “biodiversity conservation corridors,” a large-scale planning region where actions are taken to integrate representation and viability of species, ecosystems, and ecological and evolutionary processes in a scenario of explicitly defined human needs. The biodiversity conservation corridor approach shifts focus from a local to a regional scale, and represents an ambitious attempt to make protected area networks that are sufficient for species survival besides promoting an optimum allocation of resources to conserve biodiversity at the least economic cost to society (Salwasser et al. 1987).
Introduction. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) production is rising in various subtropical zones throughout the world. The main polyembryonic rootstocks used by growers in South-East Spain are Gomera 1 and Gomera 3 (from the Canary Islands) and the most commonly used cultivars are Osteen and Keitt (from Florida, US). In this marginal environment for mango growing, it is important to determine the different rootstock qualities in order to optimise fruit production. The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of mango cv. Osteen and Keitt on the two aforementioned rootstocks, as measured by fruit yield, scion growth and mineral nutrition. Materials and methods. A 3-year study was conducted in a mature mango orchard (14 years old) of a total of 24 trees, where eight were grafted onto cv. Osteen, another eight onto Keitt (four trees with each of the G1-Ost, G3-Ost, G1-Kt and G3-Kt combinations) and eight were ungrafted rootstocks. Fruit yield and pomological characteristics were evaluated by measuring fruit length, width and weight. Height and canopy diameter, as well as the trunk circumference of the tree, were recorded. Throughout the study period, chemical foliar measurements were taken from all trees. Results. Fruit yield in G1-Ost and G3-Kt trees proved significantly higher than that in the others. The fruit weight and length with the G3-Kt combination were greater than those with G1-Kt. Both cultivars grafted on Gomera 3 rootstock had the highest height and canopy volume. The tree-size data confirmed the vigorous feature of the Gomera 3. The N and P foliar concentration was significantly higher for Gomera 3 than for Gomera 1 in both cultivars. The K concentration was higher in G3-Kt leaves than in G1-Kt ones, but higher in G1-Ost than in G3-Ost. The leaf Mn and Cu concentrations with G3-Kt significantly exceeded those of G1-Kt. Conclusion. The height, trunk cross-sectional area, and canopy volume and diameter proved to be the greatest with Gomera 3, reflecting the vigour of this rootstock. The combinations G1-Ost and G3-Kt registered the highest fruit yield, offering promising possibilities for boosting subtropical productivity in mango.
Introduction. The yellow passionfruit is consumed mainly as juice and is well accepted around the world. The nutritional state of the plant influences yield and fruit quality. We studied the particular effect of potassium nutrition on the quality of yellow passionfruit. Materials and methods. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal University of Viçosa, in Brazil, outlined in a randomized block design. The treatments were five concentrations of K [(1, 2, 4, 6 and 8) mmol·L–1] in a modified nutritive solution of Hoagland and Arnon. The experimental unit consisted of one plant in a 20-L pot containing washed sand. The plants were irrigated by a circulating hydroponic system. The nutrients were re-added to the solution based on its electric conductivity and on the K content in each solution. Results and discussion. The K supply increased yield and average fruit weight up to the concentration of (6.43 and 6.24) mmol·L–1, respectively, and linearly increased the number of seeds per fruit, thickness and relative water content of the pericarp and vitamin C content. The total titratable acid content increased according to a square equation, with the maximum point at 5.27 mmol K ·L–1. The pulp percentage, pH and total soluble solids content were not influenced by K doses. Conclusions. The increase in K supply promoted yield and fruit quality. At 90% of the maximum yield, the fruits had adequate quality traits.