To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This review summarizes what is currently known about herbicide resistance in Bromus spp. worldwide. Additional information on the biology and genetics of Bromus spp. is provided to further the understanding of resistance evolution and dispersal of the different species. Cases of herbicide resistance have been confirmed in Bromus catharticus Vahl., Bromus commutatus Schrad. (syn.: Bromus racemosus L.), Bromus diandrus Roth, Bromus japonicus Thunb. (syn.: Bromus arvensis L.), Bromus madritensis L., Bromus rigidus Roth (syn.: Bromus diandrus Roth ssp. diandrus), Bromus rubens L., Bromus secalinus L., Bromus sterilis L., and Bromus tectorum L. in 11 countries. Bromus spp. populations have evolved cross- and multiple resistance to six herbicide sites of action: acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, acetolactate synthase, photosystem II, very-long-chain fatty-acid, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitors. Resistance mechanisms varied from target-site to non–target site or a combination of both. Bromus spp. are generally highly self-pollinated, but outcrossing can occur at low levels in some species. Bromus spp. have different ploidy levels, ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 14) to duodecaploid (2n = 12x = 84). Herbicide resistance in Bromus spp. is a global issue, and the spread of herbicide-resistance alleles primarily occurs via seed-mediated gene flow. However, the transfer of herbicide-resistance alleles via pollen-mediated gene flow is possible.
Amid widespread occurrence of herbicide-resistant weeds in the United States, the use of PRE herbicides and cover crops have resurged once again as important strategies for weed management in cropping systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the length of soil residual weed control from PRE soybean herbicides and the detrimental impact of these herbicides on cover crop species using field treated soil in greenhouse bioassays. Greenhouse bioassays were conducted using soil from field experiments conducted in 2018 and 2019 in Arlington and Lancaster, WI. PRE herbicides consisted of imazethapyr, chlorimuron-ethyl, and cloransulam-methyl (acetolactate synthase [ALS] inhibitors); metribuzin (photosystem II [PS II] inhibitor); sulfentrazone, flumioxazin, and saflufenacil (protoporphyrinogen oxidase [PPO] inhibitors); acetochlor, S-metolachlor, dimethenamid-P, and pyroxasulfone (very long-chain fatty acid [VLCFA] inhibitors); and a nontreated control. Greenhouse bioassays were conducted using soil (depth, 0 to 10 cm) sampled at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 d after treatment (DAT). Palmer amaranth and giant foxtail (weeds), and radish and cereal rye (cover crops) were used as bioindicators of herbicide levels in the soil. Bioassay results showed extended soil residual control of Palmer amaranth with sulfentrazone and pyroxasulfone; extended residual control of giant foxtail was observed with pyroxasulfone and S-metolachlor. Chlorimuron-ethyl and metribuzin were the most injurious herbicides to radish and cereal rye shortly after application, respectively, but minimal injury was observed from soil samples collected 50 DAT, indicating the use of PRE and fall-seeded cover crops in southern Wisconsin can be compatible. These results can support growers and practitioners with selection of effective PRE herbicides for Palmer amaranth and giant foxtail control and reduced impact on fall-seeded radish and cereal rye cover crops, altogether leading to more effective, diverse, and sustainable weed management programs.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.