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Preconception counseling is far beyond providing information about pregnancy to women prior to conception. It is an ultimate period for risk assessment, health promotion and medical/psychosocial interventions. Low pre-pregnancy weight increases risks for preterm birth and low birth weight both associated with significant neonatal morbidity. The assessment of the woman's vaccination history is strongly recommended before beginning the treatment of infertility. Identified risk factors that require referral to genetic counseling include developmental delay, congenital anomalies or any genetic family disorders, chromosomal anomalies or known genetic conditions in at least one member of a couple. For the majority of chronic diseases, optimal control prior to conception is associated with favorable maternal and neonatal outcomes. Men should be targeted because their lifestyle and general health affect semen quality and the health of their offspring, and influence women's compliance with recommendations.