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Although the US Constitution is quite short, it is also quite old. The structures it called forth – including the presidency, the bicameral Congress, the Supreme Court – survive, even as their relationships have evolved. Its brief provisions have also spawned a complex body of jurisprudence on many issues that has shifted over more than two centuries; there are now more than 560 volumes of the official ‘US Reports’, that is, of cases decided by the US Supreme Court.1
With contributions from leading scholars in constitutional law, this volume examines how carefully designed and limited doctrines of proportionality can improve judicial decision-making, how it is applied in different jurisdictions, its role on constitutionalism outside the courts, and whether the principle of proportionality actually advances or detracts from democracy. Contributions from some of the seminal thinkers on the development of scholarship on proportionality (e.g. Alexy, Barak, and Beatty) extend their prior work and engage in an important dialogue on the topic. Some offer substantial critiques, others defend the doctrine and offer important clarifications and extensions of their prior work. Throughout, the authors engage not only with case law from around the world but also with existing scholarly treatments of the subject. Mathematical treatments are avoided, making the book accessible to readers from both 'soft' and hard' social science backgrounds.
Although depression appears to be associated with worse survival from cancer, the underlying mechanisms of this association are unknown. Tumor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genotype is a known predictor of survival in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and appears to be associated with depression. We hypothesized that tumor EGFR genotype may account for a relationship between depression and survival in this population. We investigated this possible relationship in a cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC, in which we had previously demonstrated an association between depression and worse survival.
A cohort of 151 patients with newly diagnosed metastatic NSCLC were enrolled and followed in a randomized controlled trial of early palliative care. At enrollment, 150 had depression assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and categorical scoring for major depressive syndrome (MDS) was used for analyses. Patients with tumor tissue available underwent EGFR genotyping. Associations with survival were tested using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders.
Twenty-one patients (14.0%) met criteria for MDS. Forty-four patients (29.3%) had EGFR genotyping, and 17 (38.6%) of these harbored EGFR mutations. Patients with EGFR mutations had significantly lower PHQ-9 scores (p = 0.03), and none met criteria for depression. EGFR mutations were significantly associated with superior survival (p = 0.02). When both depression and EGFR genotype were simultaneously entered into the model, only EGFR mutations remained significantly associated with survival (p = 0.02), and the effect of depression was attenuated.
Significance of results:
Depression is associated with worse survival in metastatic NSCLC, and this relationship may be at least partially explained by tumor EGFR genotype. Further study into whether depression could be associated with specific biologic properties of cancer that vary by genotype is warranted.
This study examined the specific impact of remembered childhood and adolescent teasing on different dimensions of body image in young adults. A total of 113 participants (43 men and 70 women) indicated that they had been teased about their weight or appearance. The results revealed that the frequency of being teased about one's appearance was the only significant predictor of appearance satisfaction in women. Overweight preoccupation was not predicted by weight or appearance teasing. For men, the perceived distress of appearance and weight-related teasing predicted appearance satisfaction and overweight preoccupation respectively. The results suggest that different types of teasing can have differential impacts on the body image of young men and women. The results identify the need for prevention and intervention programs to address the problem of teasing in late primary and early high school children.
As Katharine Bartlett has written, being a legal feminist entails “asking the ‘woman question’” in law. This essay asks the “woman question” about constitutions and constitutional law, largely with the purpose of generating areas for future research. I focus neither on particular subject areas nor on doctrinal issues, but rather on three areas of constitutional theory: the idea of constitutions as entrenched law under difficult-to-amend provisions, the allocation of jurisdiction in and among different levels and branches of government, and the idea of interpretive theory in constitutional law.
First, I want to acknowledge the wide range of subjects in and around constitutions that are amenable to analysis through the lens of gender. Women in many parts of the world now participate in constitution making – the title of a recent collection of essays, Women Making Constitutions, would have been almost inconceivable a century ago. As Vivien Hart notes, greater emphasis on participation in constitution making has in many countries offered opportunities for women to place their mark on and in constitutions. Many questions are embraced in this topic: How have women organized to participate? What have women sought to include in their constitutions? What have women disagreed about? What are the relationships among women's participation in constitution making, the constitutional texts that emerge, and the changed conditions for women in the years thereafter? How much do women participate as office holders, judges, and in other government positions under these constitutions?