We report on the surgical technique for surface electro-auditory prosthesis (EAP) implantation, pathological changes occurring at the cochlear nucleus complex (CNC), and its relation with electrical stimulation. Fourteen Macaca fascicularis were operated upon for a translabyrinthine bilateral auditory neurectomy, and simultaneous unilateral EAP implantation. Six animals were not stimulated, and the remaining eight were connected to an external active device. Stimulation was planned for 1000 hours. Biotolerance to the materials was adequate without significant reactions in the CNC surface, but an ependymal reaction. Lesions attributed to surgical trauma were also found. Two animals being stimulated could not complete the planned course due to cable break or EAP extrusion. One stimulated animal developed an asymptomatic brainstem abscess. A good knowledge of CNC topography is required to avoid surgical trauma. Externally connected devices may facilitate extrusion of the EAP or ascending infections.