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The present study aimed to take stock of nutrition interventions that warrant consideration as a minimum package of interventions in Indonesia to improve four key nutrition indicators for adolescents: stunting, thinness, overweight and anaemia.
We conducted a review of the peer-reviewed literature published between 1995 and 2017 on nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions that target adolescents in Indonesia. The search to identify studies was conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar and EMBASE, using key search terms. We also explored programmatic and policy documents from the grey literature as they related to adolescents and/or Indonesia. Our search yielded thirty-five peer-reviewed articles and programmatic documents.
Adolescent girls and boys.
There is very limited evidence on the impact of interventions specifically among adolescents in Indonesia. Nevertheless, findings from our review suggest the minimum package of interventions in Indonesia could include the following nutrition-specifc interventions: (i) iron–folic acid supplements, paired with antihelminths delivered at scale via school-based platforms and through health centres; and (ii) diet counselling and nutrition education provided through school-based platforms, adolescent youth centres/peer education and technology-based platforms. The minimum package could also include the following nutrition-sensitive interventions: (i) improving access to reproductive health services; and (ii) increasing the coverage of interventions designed to increase school attendance.
Programmes and policies targeting adolescent nutrition are relatively new and coverage is low. To improve the nutritional status of this vulnerable population, additional evaluations of adolescent programming and surveillance data on adolescents are needed.
To investigate the association between maternal employment and childhood overweight in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).
We utilized cross-sectional data from forty-five Demographic and Health Surveys from 2010 to 2016 (n 268 763). Mothers were categorized as formally employed, informally employed or non-employed. We used country-specific logistic regression models to investigate the association between maternal employment and childhood overweight (BMI Z-score>2) and assessed heterogeneity in the association by maternal education with the inclusion of an interaction term. We used meta-analysis to pool the associations across countries. Sensitivity analyses included modelling BMI Z-score and normal weight (weight-for-age Z-score≥−2 to <2) as outcomes.
Participants included children 0–5 years old and their mothers (aged 18–49 years).
In most countries, neither formal nor informal employment was associated with childhood overweight. However, children of employed mothers, compared with children of non-employed mothers, had higher BMI Z-score and higher odds of normal weight. In countries where the association varied by education, children of formally employed women with high education, compared with children of non-employed women with high education, had higher odds of overweight (pooled OR=1·2; 95 % CI 1·0, 1·4).
We find no clear association between employment and child overweight. However, maternal employment is associated with a modestly higher BMI Z-score and normal weight, suggesting that employment is currently associated with beneficial effects on children’s weight status in most LMIC.
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