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The aim of this study was to (1) assess the long-term mental and behavioral health outcomes of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill of residents in the Gulf Coast and to (2) identify populations that may be particularly vulnerable to future disasters.
The Survey of Trauma, Resilience, and Opportunity in Neighborhoods in the Gulf (STRONG) is a population-representative sample of 2520 coastal residents surveyed in Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida in 2016. We present prevalence estimates for positive screens of depression, anxiety, and alcohol misuse, as well as receipt of health care services. We examine differences in these outcomes across states, affected occupational groups, and demographic groups.
Resource loss attributed to the spill was associated with positive screens for depression and anxiety. Almost 50% of adults screened positive for depression, anxiety, or alcohol misuse, but less than 20% of these currently access mental health care. Black residents were less likely to have health insurance and a usual source of care but were more likely to have visited the emergency room in the past 12 months.
Surveillance data from STRONG can help policy-makers and other stakeholders develop targeted approaches to foster resilience, particularly among vulnerable populations, and thereby mitigate the effects of future disasters.
To measure transmission frequencies and risk factors for household acquisition of community-associated and healthcare-associated (HA-) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Prospective cohort study from October 4, 2008, through December 3, 2012.
Seven acute care hospitals in or near Toronto, Canada.
Total of 99 MRSA-colonized or MRSA-infected case patients and 183 household contacts.
Baseline interviews were conducted, and surveillance cultures were collected monthly for 3 months from household members, pets, and 8 prespecified high-use environmental locations. Isolates underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing.
Overall, of 183 household contacts 89 (49%) were MRSA colonized, with 56 (31%) detected at baseline. MRSA transmission from index case to contacts negative at baseline occurred in 27 (40%) of 68 followed-up households. Strains were identical within households. The transmission risk for HA-MRSA was 39% compared with 40% (P=.95) for community-associated MRSA. HA-MRSA index cases were more likely to be older and not practice infection control measures (P=.002–.03). Household acquisition risk factors included requiring assistance and sharing bath towels (P=.001–.03). Environmental contamination was identified in 78 (79%) of 99 households and was more common in HA-MRSA households.
Household transmission of community-associated and HA-MRSA strains was common and the difference in transmission risk was not statistically significant.
Describe the epidemiology of healthcare-related (ie, healthcare-associated and hospital-acquired) pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among hospitalized patients in community hospitals.
Retrospective cohort study.
Twenty-four community hospitals in the southeastern United States affiliated with the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network (median size, 211 beds; range, 103–658 beds).
Adult patients with healthcare-related MRSA pneumonia admitted to study hospitals from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2012, were identified using surveillance data. Seasonal and annual incidence rates (cases per 100,000 patient-days) were estimated using generalized estimating equation models. Characteristics of community-onset and hospital-onset cases were compared.
A total of 1,048 cases of healthcare-related pneumonia due to MRSA were observed during 5,863,941 patient-days. The annual incidence rate of healthcare-related MRSA pneumonia increased from 11.3 cases per 100,000 patient-days (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.8–18.7) in 2008 to 15.5 cases per 100,000 patient-days (95% CI, 8.4–28.5) in 2012 (P = .055). The incidence rate was highest in winter months and lowest in summer months (15.4 vs 11.1 cases per 100,000 patient-days; incidence rate ratio, 1.39 [95% CI, 1.06–1.82]; P = .016). A total of 814 cases (77.7%) were community-onset healthcare-associated pneumonia cases; only 49 cases (4.7%) were ventilator-associated cases. Of 811 patients whose disposition was known, 240 (29.6%) died during hospitalization or were discharged to hospice.
From 2008 through 2012, the incidence of healthcare-related MRSA pneumonia among patients who were admitted to a large network of community hospitals increased, despite the decreasing incidence of invasive MRSA infections nationwide. Additional study is warranted to evaluate trends in this important and potentially modifiable public health problem.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(12):1452–1457
To describe the epidemiology of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in community hospitals.
Design and Setting.
Prospective study in 31 community hospitals from 2007 to 2011.
VAP surveillance was performed by infection preventionists using the National Healthcare Safety Network protocol. VAP incidence was reported as number of events per 1,000 ventilator-days. We categorized hospitals into small (<30,000 patient-days/year), medium (30,000–60,000 patient-days/year), and large (>60,000 patient-days/year) groups and compared VAP incidence by hospital size.
The median VAP incidence was 1.4 (interquartile range, 0.4–2.4), and ventilator utilization ratio (VUR) was 0.33 (0.25–0.47). VAP incidence was higher in small hospitals (2.1) than medium (0.85) or large (0.69) hospitals (P = .03) despite a lower VUR in small hospitals (0.29 vs 0.31 vs 0.44, respectively; P = .01). The median age of 247 VAP cases was 64 (53-73); 136 (55.1%) were female; 142 (57.5%) were Caucasian; 170 (68.8%) were admitted from home. The length of stay and duration of ventilation were 26 (14–42) and 12 (4–21) days, respectively. The pre- and postinfection hospital stays were 8 (3–13) days and 14 (8–30) days, respectively. Data on outcomes were available in 214 cases (86.6%), and 75 (35.0%) cases died during hospitalization. The top 3 pathogens were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; n = 70, 27.9%), Pseudomonas species (n = 40, 16.3%), and Klebsiella species (n = 34, 13.3%).
VAP incidence was inversely associated with size of hospital. VAP in community hospitals was frequently caused by MRSA. Importantly, predictors of VAP incidence in tertiary care hospitals such as VUR may not be predictive in community hospitals with few ventilated patients.
This article describes an interpretive study that evaluated a new subject in teacher education called ‘Education for Sustainable Development’. The study evaluated the subject for its ability to prepare pre-service teachers for their roles as environmental educators. We used perspectives in place-based pedagogy and critical thinking to underpin the subject design and our analysis. Data sources include instructor journals, planning documents, interviews with students and student thinking books. Interpretive analysis of the data corpus was a collaborative process that involved both subject instructors and students who took the subject. Themes that emerged from the research were centred around: (1) how the students built connections between primary school education and environmental education; (2) how students developed action competence through the activities in the subject; (3) how students were challenged to think differently about themselves as educators; and, (4) how the subject design presented its own challenges for both instructors and students.
China currently faces severe environmental challenges, and information regarding the predictors of pro-environmental behaviour in China is needed to manage them. This study addresses this need by modelling the sociodemographic and attitudinal factors predicting pro-environmental behaviour in urban China. Pro-environmental behaviour was modelled as a function of environmental attitude (measured using the new environmental paradigm) and various sociodemographic characteristics. Respondents who were employed, holding leadership positions, living in larger cities and single were more likely to participate in pro-environmental behaviour. These results accord with previous studies suggesting being female, younger, highly educated and having environmentally oriented attitudes increased the odds of participating in pro-environmental behaviour. The rapid urbanization and economic development in China may significantly impact pro-environmental behaviour in the future.
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), which is caused primarily by the Canadian methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-10 (CMRSA-10) strain (also known as the USA300 strain) has emerged rapidly in the United States and is now emerging in Canada. We assessed the prevalence, risk factors, microbiological characteristics and outcomes of CA-MRSA in patients with purulent skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in the Greater Toronto Area.
Patients with Staphylococcus aureus SSTIs who presented to 7 EDs between Mar. 1 and Jun. 30, 2007, were eligible for inclusion in this study. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and molecular characteristics of MRSA strains were identified. Demographic, risk factor and clinical data were collected through telephone interviews.
MRSA was isolated from 58 (19%) of 299 eligible patients. CMRSA-10 was identified at 6 of the 7 study sites and accounted for 29 (50%) of all cases of MRSA. Telephone interviews were completed for 161 of the eligible patients. Individuals with CMRSA-10 were younger (median 34 v. 63 yr, p = 0.002), less likely to report recent antibiotic use (22% v. 67%, p = 0.046) or health care–related risk factors (33% v. 72%, p = 0.097) and more likely to report community-related risk factors (56% v. 6%, p = 0.008) than patients with other MRSA strains. CMRSA-10 SSTIs were treated with incision and drainage (1 patient), antibiotic therapy (3 patients) or both (5 patients), and all resolved. CMRSA-10 isolates were susceptible to clindamycin, tetracycline and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole.
CA-MRSA is a significant cause of SSTIs in the Greater Toronto Area, and can affect patients without known community-related risk factors. The changing epidemiology of CA-MRSA necessitates further surveillance to inform prevention strategies and empiric treatment guidelines.
To investigate the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh, and examine the relationship between various factors and vitamin A status.
Community Nutrition Promoter (CNP) centres in Kapasia sub-district of Gazipur district, Bangladesh.
A cross-sectional study.
Subjects and methods
Two hundred women, aged 18–39 years, in their second or third trimester of pregnancy were selected from seventeen CNP centres in four unions of Kapasia sub-district where they usually visit for antenatal care. Various socio-economic, personal and pregnancy-related information, dietary intake of vitamin A and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) data were collected. Serum retinol (vitamin A) concentration was determined.
More than half (51 %) of the pregnant women had low vitamin A status (serum retinol <1·05 μmol/l) with 18·5 % having VAD (serum retinol <0·70 μmol/l). Fifty-three per cent of the women’s vitamin A intake was less than the recommended dietary allowance. By multiple regression analysis, MUAC, per-capita expenditure on food and wealth index were found to have significant independent positive relationship with serum retinol concentration, while gestational age of the pregnant women had a negative relationship. The overall F-ratio (10·3) was highly significant (P = 0·0001), the adjusted R2 was 0·18 (multiple R = 0·45).
VAD is highly prevalent among rural pregnant women in Bangladesh. Gestational age, nutritional status, per-capita expenditure on food and wealth index appear to be important in influencing the vitamin A status of these women. An appropriate intervention is warranted in order to improve the vitamin A status.
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