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The aim of this study is to analyse the changing patterns in the transmission of COVID-19 in relation to changes in Vietnamese governmental policies, based on epidemiological data and policy actions in a large Vietnamese province, Bac Ninh, in 2021. Data on confirmed cases from January to December 2021 were collected, together with policy documents. There were three distinct periods of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bac Ninh province during 2021. During the first period, referred to as the ‘Zero-COVID’ period (01/04–07/04/2021), there was a low population vaccination rate, with less than 25% of the population receiving its first vaccine dose. Measures implemented during this period focused on domestic movement restrictions, mask mandates, and screening efforts to control the spread of the virus. The subsequent period, referred to as the ‘Transition’ period (07/05–10/22/2021), witnessed a significant increase in population vaccination coverage, with 80% of the population receiving their first vaccine dose. During this period, several days passed without any reported COVID-19 cases in the community. The local government implemented measures to manage domestic actions and reduce the time spent in quarantine, and encouraged home quarantining for the close contacts of cases with COVID-19. Finally, the ‘New-normal’ stage (10/23–12/31/2021), during which the population vaccination coverage with a second vaccine dose increased to 70%, and most of the mandates for the prevention and control of COVID-19 were reduced. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of governmental policies in managing and controlling the transmission of COVID-19 and provides insights for developing realistic and context-specific strategies in similar settings.
We investigated the electrical conduction and resistance switching mechanisms of TiOx thin films grown on three kinds of bottom electrode at room temperature (an inert Pt, an active Ti and fluorine tin oxide FTO electrodes). The bottom electrode materials strongly affect the I-V characteristics and switching parameters. The I-V characteristic is explained through the presence of interface states in the metal electrode devices (Pt and Ti) and the work function in the metal oxide device (FTO). The Pt device has the smallest VSET and largest switching ratio, while the Ti device shows the largest VSET and smallest switching ratio. XPS data shows non-lattice oxygen in TiOx films. Therefore, the proposed bipolar resistance switching arises from formation and rupture of filament paths, generated by the movement of oxygen vacancies. All devices depict the same electrical conductions, trap-controlled space-charge-limited, FN tunneling and Ohmic conductions for a high resistance state and a low resistance state, respectively. In this study, the rarely reported FN tunneling conduction in published TiOx-based ReRAM device was found, which can be attributed to an influence of the bottom electrode on the electronic distribution in devices.
The Vietnamese South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS), a cross-sectional study, was undertaken to assess the nutritional status in a nationally representative sample of children aged 0·5–11·9 years. A multi-stage cluster-randomised sampling method was used to recruit 2872 children. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemistry involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24 h recall questionnaire, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Vietnamese RDA. In children aged < 5 years, approximately 14 % were stunted, 8·6 % underweight and 4·4 % thin. A higher prevalence of stunting (15·6 %) and underweight (22·2 %) was observed in school-aged children. Undernutrition was more prevalent in rural areas than in urban areas. In contrast, almost 29 % of the urban children were either overweight or obese when compared with 4 % of the overweight children and 1·6 % of the obese children in rural areas. A higher percentage of children in the age group 0·5–1·9 years and residing in rural areas had low Hb levels than those in the age group 2·0–5·9 years and residing in urban areas. In children aged 6–11 years, a small percentage had low Hb (11–14 %) and vitamin A (5–10 %) levels, but almost half the children (48–53 %) had vitamin D insufficiency. Food consumption data indicated that the children did not meet the RDA for energy, protein, Fe, vitamin A, vitamin B1 and vitamin C. Results from the SEANUTS highlight the double burden of malnutrition in Vietnam. Information from the SEANUTS can serve as an input for targeted policy development, planning and development of nutrition programmes.
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