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Causes of falls in older adults are common, multifactorial, and can lead to significant injury. This before-and-after study evaluated the benefits of a Fall Prevention Mobile Clinic (FPMC) in reducing the risk of falling in older adults in British Columbia, Canada. Four hundred seventy-six participants (average age of 83.6 years) enrolled in the study and were followed for 12 months after attending the FPMC. At 12-month follow-up, the mean percentage uptake of fall prevention recommendations was 48.8 per cent (SD = 25.7%), the Timed Up and Go mobility measure improved from a median of 19.04 seconds to 17.45 seconds and the number of participants falling decreased from 64.8 per cent (in the 12 months before attending the clinic) to 55.6 per cent (in the 12 months after attending the clinic) (p = .012). After attending the FPMC, participants acted on recommendations, improved mobility and decreased their risk of future falls.
We examined the comparative effects of three specialized remediation procedures on the spelling accuracy of students with moderate mental retardation. In the first experiment, we compared directed rehearsal and imitation training against a no-training control condition, in an alternating treatments design. Both procedures were more effective than a no-training control condition, and imitation training was marginally more effective than directed rehearsal. In the second experiment, we investigated further the effectiveness of imitation training by comparing its effects against interspersal training and a no-training control condition in an alternating treatments design. Although both procedures were more effective than no training, there was little difference between the two procedures, in terms of the students’ rate of learning new words. This study showed that these three specialized remediation procedures can be used to increase the spelling proficiency of students with moderate mental retardation.
Cotton–wheat (CW) is the second most important cropping system after rice–wheat in South Asia. Sowing of wheat after cotton is usually delayed due to late pickings coupled with time needed for seedbed preparation, resulting in low wheat yield. Lack of suitable machinery is a major constraint to direct drilling of wheat into the heavy cotton stubbles. An innovative approach with much promise is the ‘2-wheel tractor-based self-propelled relay seeder’ with seed-cum-fertilizer attachment. On-farm trials were conducted at four locations during 2009–2010 and at 10 locations during 2010–2011 to evaluate the following four wheat establishment methods in CW-dominated areas of south-western Punjab, India: (1) zero till seeding in standing cotton using a self-propelled relay seeder, (2) relay seeding in standing cotton with a manual drill without prior tillage (2010 only), (3) relay broadcast seeding in standing cotton following light manual tillage and (4) conventional sowing of wheat after cotton harvest (conventional tillage and sowing with a seed–fertilizer drill). Planting of wheat under conventional practice was delayed by 20–44 days compared with relay seeding. Seed cotton yield was also significantly higher with relay seeding due to opportunity for one additional picking. Yield of wheat sown with the self-propelled relay seeder was 41.2% and 11.8% higher than with conventional practice in 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 respectively. The increase in wheat yield under relay seeding of wheat was primarily due to higher spike density and more grains per spike. The net income from the CW system was 28.2% higher for the self-propelled relay seeder than with conventional sowing.