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Enthalpies of water adsorption on amorphous and crystalline oxides and peroxides of uranium are reported. Despite substantial structural and computational research on reactions between actinides and water, understanding their surface interactions from the energetic perspective remains incomplete. Direct calorimetric measurements of hydration energetics of nano-sized, bulk-sized UO2, U3O8, anhydrous γ-UO3, amorphous UO3, and U2O7 were carried out, and their integral adsorption enthalpies were determined to be −67.0, −70.2, −73.0, −84.1, −61.6, and −83.6 kJ/mol water, with corresponding water coverages of 4.6, 4.5, 4.1, 5.2, 4.4, and 4.1 H2O per nm2, respectively. These energetic constraints are important for understanding the interfacial phenomena between water and U-containing phases. Additionally, this set of data also helps predict the absorption and desorption behavior of water from nuclear waste forms or used nuclear fuels under repository conditions. There are also underlying relations for water coverage among different U compounds. These experimentally determined data can be used as benchmark values for future computational investigations.
Recent advances in techniques to generate static ultra-high pressure (>100 GPa) in the diamond anvil cell have significantly enhanced our understanding of the properties of solids under these extreme conditions. In order to characterize the structure of solids at these pressures, X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation has become an invaluable tool. Since the highest pressures are attained at the expense of sample volume (~ 100 μm3) , it is best to use the intense radiation available from a synchrotron to study the very small samples used in ultra-high pressure studies. Even with the intense x-ray beams currently available, it is still often desirable to focus the x-ray beam to increase the available flux. We have developed a focusing system which uses multilayer coated spherical mirrors. With this system, intense x-ray beams with sizes smaller than 10 μm by 10 μm can be achieved at a synchrotron radiation beamline. Previously, we used the focusing system for x-ray microprobe experiments.
We hypothesize that political activism is valuable because it helps reduce political uncertainty, which, in turn, fosters firm innovation. We find that firms that support more politicians, winning politicians, politicians on congressional committees with jurisdictional authority over the firms’ industries, and politicians who join those committees innovate more. We employ a natural experiment to show a causal effect of political activism on innovation. We also show evidence of intra-industry and geographical political activism spillovers.
We developed a systematic experimental method to demonstrate that damage threshold fluence (DTF) for fused silica changes with the number of femtosecond laser (800 nm,
, 10 Hz and 600 Hz) pulses. Based on the experimental data, we were able to develop a model which indicates that the change in DTF varies with the number of shots logarithmically up to a critical value. Above this value, DTF approaches an asymptotic value. Both DTF for a single shot and the asymptotic value as well as the critical value where this happens, are extrinsic parameters dependent on the configuration (repetition rate, pressure and geometry near or at the surface). These measurements indicate that the power of this dependence is an intrinsic parameter independent of the configuration.
Determine the relationship between quality of an accountable care organization (ACO) and its long-term reduction in healthcare costs.
We conducted a cost minimization analysis. Using Centers for Medicare and Medicaid cost and quality data, we calculated weighted composite quality scores for each ACO and organization-level cost savings. We used Markov modeling to compute the probability that an ACO transitioned between different quality levels in successive years. Considering a health-systems perspective with costs discounted at 3 percent, we conducted 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations to project long-term cost savings by quality level over a 10-year period. We compared the change in per-member expenditures of Pioneer (early-adopters) ACOs versus Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) ACOs to assess the impact of coordination of care, the main mechanism for cost savings.
Overall, Pioneer ACOs saved USD 641.24 per beneficiary and MSSP ACOs saved USD 535.59 per beneficiary. By quality level: (a) high quality organizations saved the most money (Pioneer: USD 459; MSSP: USD 816); (b) medium quality saved some money (Pioneer: USD 222; MSSP: USD 105); and (c) low quality suffered financial losses (Pioneer: USD -40; MSSP: USD -386).
Within the existing fee-for-service healthcare model, ACOs are a mechanism for decreasing costs by improving quality of care. Higher quality organizations incorporate greater levels of coordination of care, which is associated with greater cost savings. Pioneer ACOs have the highest level of integration of services; hence, they save the most money.
The effective lifetimes of electronic packages are affected by various thermos-mechanical deformations. Creep is considered the most salient mechanism in the failure of solder joints. Many researchers have conducted reasonable studies to portray the behavior of creep deformation using numerical models and further extended their research scope to forecast the lifetimes of packages with the results obtained from creep models. Many studies have identified particular creep and lifetime models to be nominal based on experimental data.
In this study, the characteristics of familiar creep models were examined in detail, and their significance was made known. Lifetime prediction models that seem prominent among researchers were discussed in detail. Finite element analysis of a wafer level chip-scale package (WLCSP) used to figure out the engagement of different creep models and their capability of materializing creep deformation was investigated via simulation. The results from the simulation were applied to different lifetime prediction models, and their predictions were examined carefully. After considering the various factors that affected the reliability study of the solders, the Garofalo-Arrhenius creep model and modified strain energy density model seemed to be convincingly productive for studying the reliability of various electronic packages.
Current policy emphasises the importance of ‘living well’ with dementia, but there has been no comprehensive synthesis of the factors related to quality of life (QoL), subjective well-being or life satisfaction in people with dementia. We examined the available evidence in a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched electronic databases until 7 January 2016 for observational studies investigating factors associated with QoL, well-being and life satisfaction in people with dementia. Articles had to provide quantitative data and include ⩾75% people with dementia of any type or severity. We included 198 QoL studies taken from 272 articles in the meta-analysis. The analysis focused on 43 factors with sufficient data, relating to 37639 people with dementia. Generally, these factors were significantly associated with QoL, but effect sizes were often small (0.1–0.29) or negligible (<0.09). Factors reflecting relationships, social engagement and functional ability were associated with better QoL. Factors indicative of poorer physical and mental health (including depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms) and poorer carer well-being were associated with poorer QoL. Longitudinal evidence about predictors of QoL was limited. There was a considerable between-study heterogeneity. The pattern of numerous predominantly small associations with QoL suggests a need to reconsider approaches to understanding and assessing living well with dementia.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
To explore the effects of maternal nutrition on offspring muscle characteristics, a total of 56 sows were assigned to one of the four dietary groups during gestation: control (CON), or control diets supplemented with methyl donor (MET), bisphenol A (BPA), and combined BPA and MET (BPA+MET). Compared with CON offspring, MET offspring showed a higher meat redness value, but lower glycogen content in the longissimus thoracis (LT). Moreover, compared with CON offspring, MET offspring showed lower LT glycogen synthase (GS) mRNA levels at birth and the finishing stage, and increased methylation at the GS promoter. Prenatal BPA exposure reduced the pH and redness value of meat, but increased the lightness value, lactate content, glycolytic potential and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activity in the LT muscle. Prenatal BPA exposure increased LDH mRNA levels in the LT muscle at birth and the finishing stage, and reduced methylation at the LDH promoter. Thus, maternal MET affects muscle GS and LDH expression via DNA methylation, thereby resulting in persistent effects on pork quality.
During August 1999, detailed data were collected in the Mertz Glacier polynya along the coast of Antarctica on the drift of newly forming ice tracked with drifting buoys and the ice thickness in the vicinity of the buoys over time. Using these measurements, we estimate the ice-growth rate and the processes which are important in the early stages of ice formation. We find that although there is rapid frazil formation in the open-water areas near the coast and Mertz Glacier Tongue, this frazil ice can take several days to consolidate. A period of warmer weather, when temperatures reached as high as 0°C, delayed the consolidation of the frazil for > 4.5 days. The undeformed new-ice growth rate averaged about 4 cm d-1 for the first 5 days of formation. Ridging and rafting doubled the total growth rate to an average of 8 cm d-1. Blowing and falling snow was incorporated into the surface of the newly forming ice, with 16 of 22 ice cores having some snow in the top few centimeters.
Electron-beam (e-beam) irradiation damage is often regarded as a severe limitation to atomic-scale study of two-dimensional (2D) materials using electron microscopy techniques. However, energy transferred from the e-beam can also provide a way to modify 2D materials via defect engineering when the interaction of the beam with the sample is precisely controlled. In this article, we discuss the atomic geometry, formation mechanism, and properties of several types of structural defects, ranging from zero-dimensional point defects to extended domains, induced by an e-beam in a few representative 2D materials, including graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, transition-metal dichalcogenides, and phosphorene. We show that atomic as well as line defects and even novel nanostructures can be created and manipulated in 2D materials by an e-beam in a controllable manner. Phase transitions can also be induced. The e-beam in a (scanning) transmission electron microscope not only resolves the intrinsic atomic structure of materials with defects, but also provides new opportunities to modify the structure with subnanometer precision.
Depression is one of the most common mental disorders and identifying effective treatment strategies is crucial for the control of depression. Well-conducted systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses can provide the best evidence for supporting treatment decision-making. Nevertheless, the trustworthiness of conclusions can be limited by lack of methodological rigour. This study aims to assess the methodological quality of a representative sample of SRs on depression treatments.
A cross-sectional study on the bibliographical and methodological characteristics of SRs published on depression treatments trials was conducted. Two electronic databases (the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects) were searched for potential SRs. SRs with at least one meta-analysis on the effects of depression treatments were considered eligible. The methodological quality of included SRs was assessed using the validated AMSTAR (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews) tool. The associations between bibliographical characteristics and scoring on AMSTAR items were analysed using logistic regression analysis.
A total of 358 SRs were included and appraised. Over half of included SRs (n = 195) focused on non-pharmacological treatments and harms were reported in 45.5% (n = 163) of all studies. Studies varied in methods and reporting practices: only 112 (31.3%) took the risk of bias among primary studies into account when formulating conclusions; 245 (68.4%) did not fully declare conflict of interests; 93 (26.0%) reported an ‘a priori’ design and 104 (29.1%) provided lists of both included and excluded studies. Results from regression analyses showed: more recent publications were more likely to report ‘a priori’ designs [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–1.57], to describe study characteristics fully (AOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.06–1.28), and to assess presence of publication bias (AOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06–1.19), but were less likely to list both included and excluded studies (AOR 0.86, 95% CI 0.81–0.92). SRs published in journals with higher impact factor (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04–1.25), completed by more review authors (AOR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01–1.24) and SRs on non-pharmacological treatments (AOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.01–2.59) were associated with better performance in publication bias assessment.
The methodological quality of included SRs is disappointing. Future SRs should strive to improve rigour by considering of risk of bias when formulating conclusions, reporting conflict of interests and authors should explicitly describe harms. SR authors should also use appropriate methods to combine the results, prevent language and publication biases, and ensure timely updates.
Short pulse laser irradiation has the ability to bring a material into a state of strong electronic, thermal, phase, and mechanical nonequilibrium and trigger a sequence of structural transformations leading to the generation of complex multiscale surface morphologies, unusual metastable phases, and microstructures that cannot be produced by any other means. In this article, we provide an overview of recent advancements and existing challenges in the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of short pulse laser interaction with materials, including the material response to strong electronic excitation, ultrafast redistribution and partitioning of the deposited laser energy, the peculiarities of phase transformations occurring under conditions of strong superheating/undercooling, as well as laser-induced generation of crystal defects and modification of surface microstructure.
We show how estimates of parameters characterizing inflation-based theories of structure formation localized over the past year when large scale structure (LSS) information from galaxy and cluster surveys was combined with the rapidly developing cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, especially from the recent Boomerang and Maxima balloon experiments. All current CMB data plus a relatively weak prior probability on the Hubble constant, age and LSS points to little mean curvature (Ωtot = 1.08±0.06) and nearly scale invariant initial fluctuations (ns = 1.03±0.08), both predictions of (non-baroque) inflation theory. We emphasize the role that degeneracy among parameters in the Lpk = 212 ± 7 position of the (first acoustic) peak plays in defining the Ωtot range upon marginalization over other variables. Though the CDM density is in the expected range (Ωcdmh2 = 0.17 ± 0.02), the baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.030 ± 0.005 is somewhat above the independent 0.019 ± 0.002 nucleosynthesis estimates. CMB+LSS gives independent evidence for dark energy (ΩΛ = 0.66 ± 0.06) at the same level as from supernova (SN1) observations, with a phenomenological quintessence equation of state limited by SN1+CMB+LSS to wQ < −0.7 cf. the wQ=−1 cosmological constant case.
A simplified procedure of synthesizing nano-sized hollow silicate particles (NHSPs) of 80-200 nm in average diameter and approximately 30 nm in wall thickness via (soft template) soluble-poly(methacrylic acid) sodium salt (NaPMA) is presented here. The process is easily scalable and can be carried out at ambient temperature. When deposited as thin (nanolayer) film, NHSPs show good transparency in visible spectra range and good sorption of CO2 for thermal energy efficiency especially in the field of thermal insulation application.
Design and fabrication of hollow silicate micro-/ nanoparticles (HSMNP) with varied sizes and morphologies are of great interest especially in developing new generation of thermal insulation materials for building applications. Efficient energy use, simply called energy-saving, involves efforts to reduce the amount of energy required and recover wasted energy. This is important since building constitutes a substantial part in the total global energy consumption. Therefore, the current study is aimed at developing new HSMNP for thermal insulation application.
In addition to offering observing time on a regular schedule, the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite is also being used to observe “targets of opportunity.” Novae represent one of the most exciting targets of opportunity and also one of the most difficult because of their rapid time behavior. During the first year of operation of IUE we were extremely fortunate to have three bright novae outbursts occur: Nova Cygni 1978, WZ Sagittae, and U Scorpii.
Nova Cyg 1978, a fast nova, reached a maximum apparent visual magnitude of 6.2 on September 12, 1978 (Slovak and Vogt 1979). Figure 1 shows the relative flux of Nova Cyg 1978 in the long ultraviolet wavelength range (1900-3200Å) at several different times. One day after maximum (Sept. 13), the nova is still in its absorption line phase. At this point it looks like a supergiant F star with mostly Fell absorption lines (also see Cassatella et al. 1979). Later spectra show the emergence of emission lines, which is the characteristic behavior of novae in the visual. Magnesium II at 2800Å is the strongest emission line in this part of the spectrum for at least a month after outburst. The last spectrum (Nov. 1) shows mainly semi-forbidden lines of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. It should also be noted that the slope of the continuum flattens as the nova evolves.