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The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
Determining infectious cross-transmission events in healthcare settings involves manual surveillance of case clusters by infection control personnel, followed by strain typing of clinical/environmental isolates suspected in said clusters. Recent advances in genomic sequencing and cloud computing now allow for the rapid molecular typing of infecting isolates.
To facilitate rapid recognition of transmission clusters, we aimed to assess infection control surveillance using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microbial pathogens to identify cross-transmission events for epidemiologic review.
Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained prospectively at an academic medical center, from September 1, 2016, to September 30, 2017. Isolate genomes were sequenced, followed by single-nucleotide variant analysis; a cloud-computing platform was used for whole-genome sequence analysis and cluster identification.
Most strains of the 4 studied pathogens were unrelated, and 34 potential transmission clusters were present. The characteristics of the potential clusters were complex and likely not identifiable by traditional surveillance alone. Notably, only 1 cluster had been suspected by routine manual surveillance.
Our work supports the assertion that integration of genomic and clinical epidemiologic data can augment infection control surveillance for both the identification of cross-transmission events and the inclusion of missed and exclusion of misidentified outbreaks (ie, false alarms). The integration of clinical data is essential to prioritize suspect clusters for investigation, and for existing infections, a timely review of both the clinical and WGS results can hold promise to reduce HAIs. A richer understanding of cross-transmission events within healthcare settings will require the expansion of current surveillance approaches.
Mules and other equine species have been used in warfare for thousands of years to transport goods and supplies. Mules are known for ‘braying’, which is disadvantageous in warfare operations. This article explores the fascinating development of surgical techniques to stop military mules from braying, with particular emphasis on the key role played by the otolaryngologist Arthur James Moffett in devoicing the mules of the second Chindit expedition of World War II.
The PubMed database (1900–2017) and Google search engine were used to identify articles related to devoicing mules in the medical and veterinary literature, along with information and images on the Chindit expedition.
This paper reviews the surgical techniques aimed at treating braying in mules, ranging from ventriculectomy and arytenoidectomy to Moffett's approach of vocal cordectomy.
Moffett's technique of vocal cordectomy provided a quick, reproducible and safe solution for devoicing mules. It proved to be advantageous on the battlefield and demonstrated his achievements outside the field of medicine.
Background: Oligodendroglioma (ODG), a molecularly defined subtype of glioma, is a treatment responsive, slow growing tumour strongly associated with IDH mutation and 1p19q co-deletion. Mutations in Capicua (CIC), located on chromosome 19q, have been found in up to 70% of IDH mutated, 1p19q co-deleted ODGs; suggesting that loss or altered function of CIC may be crucially associated with ODG’s unique biology. CIC and ATXN1L have previously been implicated in neurodegeneration, however, this interaction has not been studied in cancer. Methods: Transcriptome profiling of CIC knockout HEK293 cell lines generated using CRISPR was performed using microarray. CIC and ATXN1L interaction was confirmed using immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence. Transcript and protein changes of CIC targets were tested using RT-qPCR and Western blot following ATXN1L siRNA knockdown. Results: Transcriptomic profiling of CIC knockout cell lines resulted in a list of candidate CIC target genes validated against clinical samples. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence confirmed CIC and ATXN1L interaction. Derepression of candidate CIC targets at transcript and protein levels was seen upon siRNA knockdown of ATXN1L. Conclusions: The interaction between CIC and ATXN1L is necessary for the repression of CIC target genes, including known oncogenes. Further research into the relationship between CIC and ATXN1L may lead potentially novel avenues of therapeutic approaches for less favorable gliomas.
Depression is one of the most common mental disorders and identifying effective treatment strategies is crucial for the control of depression. Well-conducted systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses can provide the best evidence for supporting treatment decision-making. Nevertheless, the trustworthiness of conclusions can be limited by lack of methodological rigour. This study aims to assess the methodological quality of a representative sample of SRs on depression treatments.
A cross-sectional study on the bibliographical and methodological characteristics of SRs published on depression treatments trials was conducted. Two electronic databases (the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects) were searched for potential SRs. SRs with at least one meta-analysis on the effects of depression treatments were considered eligible. The methodological quality of included SRs was assessed using the validated AMSTAR (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews) tool. The associations between bibliographical characteristics and scoring on AMSTAR items were analysed using logistic regression analysis.
A total of 358 SRs were included and appraised. Over half of included SRs (n = 195) focused on non-pharmacological treatments and harms were reported in 45.5% (n = 163) of all studies. Studies varied in methods and reporting practices: only 112 (31.3%) took the risk of bias among primary studies into account when formulating conclusions; 245 (68.4%) did not fully declare conflict of interests; 93 (26.0%) reported an ‘a priori’ design and 104 (29.1%) provided lists of both included and excluded studies. Results from regression analyses showed: more recent publications were more likely to report ‘a priori’ designs [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–1.57], to describe study characteristics fully (AOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.06–1.28), and to assess presence of publication bias (AOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06–1.19), but were less likely to list both included and excluded studies (AOR 0.86, 95% CI 0.81–0.92). SRs published in journals with higher impact factor (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04–1.25), completed by more review authors (AOR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01–1.24) and SRs on non-pharmacological treatments (AOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.01–2.59) were associated with better performance in publication bias assessment.
The methodological quality of included SRs is disappointing. Future SRs should strive to improve rigour by considering of risk of bias when formulating conclusions, reporting conflict of interests and authors should explicitly describe harms. SR authors should also use appropriate methods to combine the results, prevent language and publication biases, and ensure timely updates.
During the early stage of an epidemic, timely and reliable estimation of the severity of infections are important for predicting the impact that the influenza viruses will have in the population. We obtained age-specific deaths and hospitalizations for patients with laboratory-confirmed H1N1pdm09 infections from June 2009 to December 2009 in Hong Kong. We retrospectively obtained the real-time estimates of the hospitalization fatality risk (HFR), using crude estimation or allowing for right-censoring for final status in some patients. Models accounting for right-censoring performed better than models without adjustments. The risk of deaths in hospitalized patients with confirmed H1N1pdm09 increased with age. Reliable estimates of the HFR could be obtained before the peak of the first wave of H1N1pdm09 in young and middle-aged adults but after the peak in the elderly. In the next influenza pandemic, timely estimation of the HFR will contribute to risk assessment and disease control.
Community-based prevention strategies for seasonal and pandemic influenza are essential to minimize their potential threat to public health. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of hand hygiene interventions in reducing influenza transmission in the community and to investigate the possible modifying effects of latitude, temperature and humidity on hand hygiene efficacy. We identified 979 articles in the initial search and 10 randomized controlled trials met our inclusion criteria. The combination of hand hygiene with facemasks was found to have statistically significant efficacy against laboratory-confirmed influenza while hand hygiene alone did not. Our meta-regression model did not identify statistically significant effects of latitude, temperature or humidity on the efficacy of hand hygiene. Our findings highlight the potential importance of interventions that protect against multiple modes of influenza transmission, and the modest efficacy of hand hygiene suggests that additional measures besides hand hygiene may also be important to control influenza.
The combined focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FIB/SEM/EDX) system is a novel tool for the automotive catalysis field. Automotive emissions such as SOx, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) are regulated to various extents throughout the world, requiring the use of multiple aftertreatment components such as the diesel particulate filter (DPF), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), three-way catalytic converter (TWC), Lean NOx trap (LNT) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). While these aforementioned aftertreatment components are generally multifunctional and robust in design, thermal and chemical aging over the components’ useful lifetimes results in significantly degraded performance leading to increased engine emissions levels and decreased fuel economy. While the component sizes themselves are generally large (10s of cm to ≈1/2 m), component aging mechanisms usually dominate on the nm-µm scales. In particular, this study has used the FIB/SEM/EDX system to investigate the aging of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) due to engine lubricant-derived inorganic ash accumulation. The FIB/SEM/EDX system has been used in the automotive aftertreatment field for the first time with many surprising and significant findings. Although the samples used in this study are quite different to those typically found in FIB studies, the authors have shown that the FIB/SEM/EDX system is a valuable tool in this research area, especially for the investigation of µm-size intra-particle structure and nm-µm interfacial/sub-surface details around the aged catalyst surface.
In the present paper we study the reconstruction of a structured quadratic pencil from
eigenvalues distributed on ellipses or parabolas. A quadratic pencil is a square matrix
QP(λ) = M λ2+Cλ +K,
K are real
square matrices. The approach developed in the paper is based on the theory of orthogonal
polynomials on the real line. The results can be applied to more general distribution of
eigenvalues. The problem with added single eigenvector is also briefly discussed. As an
illustration of the reconstruction method, the eigenvalue problem on linearized stability
of certain class of stationary exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equations describing
atmospheric flows on a spherical surface is reformulated as a simple mass-spring system by
means of this method.
The problem of transformation of quasimonochromatic wavetrains of surface gravity waves
with narrow spatial-temporal spectra on the bottom shelf is considered in the linear
approximation. By means of numerical modeling, the transmission and reflection
coefficients are determined as functions of the depth ratio and wave number (frequency) of
an incident wave. The approximation formulae are proposed for the coefficients of wave
transformation. The characteristic features of these formulae are analyzed. It is shown
that the numerical results agree quite satisfactorily with the proposed approximation
The aim of this paper is to introduce and study multilinear pseudo-differential operators
on Zn and Tn =
More precisely, we give sufficient conditions and sometimes necessary conditions for
Lp-boundedness of these
classes of operators. L2-boundedness results for multilinear
pseudo-differential operators on Zn and Tn with
L2-symbols are stated. The proofs of these
results are based on elementary estimates on the multilinear Rihaczek transforms for
functions in L2(Zn)
which are also introduced.
We study the weak continuity of multilinear operators on the m-fold product of Lebesgue
1,...,m and the
link with the continuity of multilinear pseudo-differential operators on Zn.
Necessary and sufficient conditions for multilinear pseudo-differential operators on
Zn or Tn to be a
Hilbert-Schmidt operators are also given. We give a necessary condition for a multilinear
pseudo-differential operators on Zn to be compact. A sufficient
condition for compactness is also given.
The cold, dry, and stable air above the summits of the Antarctic plateau provides the best ground-based observing conditions from optical to sub-millimetre wavelengths to be found on the Earth. Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope (PILOT) is a proposed 2 m telescope, to be built at Dome C in Antarctica, able to exploit these conditions for conducting astronomy at optical and infrared wavelengths. While PILOT is intended as a pathfinder towards the construction of future grand-design facilities, it will also be able to undertake a range of fundamental science investigations in its own right. This paper provides the performance specifications for PILOT, including its instrumentation. It then describes the kinds of projects that it could best conduct. These range from planetary science to the search for other solar systems, from star formation within the Galaxy to the star formation history of the Universe, and from gravitational lensing caused by exo-planets to that produced by the cosmic web of dark matter. PILOT would be particularly powerful for wide-field imaging at infrared wavelengths, achieving near diffraction-limited performance with simple tip–tilt wavefront correction. PILOT would also be capable of near diffraction-limited performance in the optical wavebands, as well be able to open new wavebands for regular ground-based observation, in the mid-IR from 17 to 40 μm and in the sub-millimetre at 200 μm.
We establish sharp semiclassical upper bounds for the moments of some negative powers for
the eigenvalues of the Dirichlet Laplacian. When a constant magnetic field is incorporated
in the problem, we obtain sharp lower bounds for the moments of positive powers not
exceeding one for such eigenvalues. When considering a Schrödinger operator with the
relativistic kinetic energy and a smooth, nonnegative, unbounded potential, we prove the
sharp Lieb-Thirring estimate for the moments of some negative powers of its
The unmatched X-ray resolution of Chandra allows probing the gas flow near quiescent supermassive black holes (BHs). The radius of BH gravitational influence on gas, called the Bondi radius, is resolved in Sgr A* and NGC 3115. Shallow accretion flow density profiles n ∝ r−β with β=0.7–1.0 were found for Sgr A* and NGC 3115 with the help of Chandra. We construct self-consistent models with gas feeding and dynamics from near the Bondi radius to the event horizon to explain the observations. Gas is mainly supplied to the region by hot colliding stellar winds. Small-scale feedback such as conduction effectively flattens the density profile from steep β=1.5 in a Bondi flow. We further constrain density and temperature profiles using the observed radio/sub-mm radiation emitted near the event horizon. We discuss the present state of our numerical model and its qualitative features, such as the role of the galactic gravitational potential and the random motion of wind-emitting stars.