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In studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), some have reported specific brain structure–function relationships among first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, but findings are inconsistent. We aimed to localize the brain regions where cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area (cortical area; CA) relate to neurocognition, by performing an MRI on participants and measuring their neurocognitive performance using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in order to investigate any significant differences between FEP patients and control subjects (CS).
Exploration of potential correlations between specific cognitive functions and brain structure was performed using CANTAB computer-based neurocognitive testing and a vertex-by-vertex whole-brain MRI analysis of 63 FEP patients and 30 CS.
Significant correlations were found between cortical parameters in the frontal, temporal, cingular and occipital brain regions and performance in set-shifting, working memory manipulation, strategy usage and sustained attention tests. These correlations were significantly dissimilar between FEP patients and CS.
Significant correlations between CTh and CA with neurocognitive performance were localized in brain areas known to be involved in cognition. The results also suggested a disrupted structure–function relationship in FEP patients compared with CS.
This study examined the associations of social support, loneliness and locus of control with depression and help-seeking in persons with major depression.
Twelve-month help-seeking for emotional problems was assessed in a cross-sectional 2006 Estonian Health Survey. Non-institutionalized individuals aged 18–84 years (n = 6105) were interviewed. A major depressive episode was assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Factors describing social support, social and emotional loneliness and locus of control were assessed, and their associations with depression were analysed. The associations with reported help-seeking behaviour among people identified as having a major depressive episode (n = 343) were explored.
Low frequency of contacts with one's friends and parents, emotional loneliness, external locus of control and emotional dissatisfaction with couple relations were significant factors predicting depression in the multivariate model. External locus of control was associated with help-seeking in the depressed sample. Interactions of emotional loneliness, locus of control and frequency of contacts with parents significantly predicted help-seeking in the depressed sample.
Depression is associated with structural and functional factors of social support and locus of control. Help-seeking of depressed persons depends on locus of control, interactions of emotional loneliness, locus of control and contacts with the parental family.
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