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In this study, we examine how the Guri catfish Genidens genidens uses estuarine and freshwater habitats along the largest South American coastal lagoon, through the chemical analysis of otoliths and microscopic analysis of gonads. Chemical composition (Sr:Ca) of otolith edges allowed distinguishing between individuals who used the estuarine or freshwater compartments of the lagoon. The analysis of core-to-edge chemical profiles of each individual otolith revealed that the population may present two different patterns of habitat use along the lagoon. The ‘type 1’ pattern (89.5%) includes fish who appear to have been born in estuarine waters, whereas ‘type 2’ (9.5%) includes those fish born in fresh water. Nevertheless, juveniles from both patterns appear to migrate to estuarine waters. The gonad analysis shows G. genidens may reproduce in fresh water, as nearly 57% of all sampled fish were found to spawn in the freshwater portion of the lagoon. Also, the otolith core of many adult fish presented freshwater signatures, thus suggesting consistent fresh water use during early life. Our findings based on otolith and gonadal analyses challenge the previous classification of G. genidens as an estuarine resident. Rather, our results allow the suggestion that this species should be placed in the ‘estuarine and fresh water’ guild, which includes both fish completing their life cycles within the estuary and fish who consistently use freshwater habitats.
We studied the ontogenetic growth of goat wethers (castrated male goats) of the Saanen and Swiss Alpine breeds based on a large range of intraspecific body mass (BM). The body parts and the chemical constituents of the empty body were described by the allometric function by using BM and the empty body mass (EBM) as the predictors for morphological traits and chemical composition, respectively. We fitted the allometric scaling function by applying the SAS NLMIXED procedure, but to evaluate assumptions regarding variances in morphological and compositional traits, we combined the scaling function with homoscedastic (MOD1), and the heteroscedastic exponential (MOD2) and power-of-the-mean (MOD3) variance functions. We also predicted the ontogenetic growth by using the traditional log-log transformation and back-transformed results into the arithmetic scale (MOD4). We obtained predictions from MOD4 in the arithmetic scale by a two-step process, and evaluated MOD1, MOD2 and MOD3 by a model selection framework, and compared MOD4 with MOD1, MOD2 and MOD3 based on goodness-of-fit measures. Based on information criteria for model selection, heterogeneous variance functions were more likely to describe 10 over 36 traits with a low level of model selection uncertainty. One trait was predicted by averaging the MOD1 and MOD2 variance functions; and nine traits were better described by averaging the MOD2 and MOD3 variance functions. The predictions for other 16 traits were averaged from MOD1, MOD2 and MOD3. However, MOD4 better described 11 traits according to the goodness-of-fit measures. Depending on the variable being analyzed, the body parts and the chemical amounts exhibited the three types of allometric behavior with respect to BM and EBM, that is, positive, negative and isometric ontogenetic growth. Reference BMs, that is, 20, 27, 35 and 45 kg, were used to compute the net protein and energy requirements based on the first derivative of the scaling function, and the results were presented in reference to the EBM and EBM0.75. Both the net protein and energy requirements scaled to EBM0.75 increased from 20 to 45 kg of BM.
The stellar occultation technique is a powerful tool to study distant small solar system bodies. Currently, around 2 500 trans-neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs are known. With the astrometry from Gaia and large surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), accurate predictions of occultation events will be available to tens of thousands of TNOs and Centaurs and boost the knowledge of the outer solar system.
Mitral valve anatomy has a significant impact on potential surgical options for patients with hypoplastic or borderline left ventricle. Papillary muscle morphology is a major component regarding this aspect. The purpose of this study was to use cardiac magnetic resonance to describe the differences in papillary muscle anatomy between normal, borderline, and hypoplastic left ventricles.
We carried out a retrospective, observational cardiac magnetic resonance study of children (median age 5.36 years) with normal (n=30), borderline (n=22), or hypoplastic (n=13) left ventricles. Borderline and hypoplastic cases had undergone an initial hybrid procedure. Morphological features of the papillary muscles, location, and arrangement were analysed and compared across groups.
All normal ventricles had two papillary muscles with narrow pedicles; however, 18% of borderline and 46% of hypoplastic cases had a single papillary muscle, usually the inferomedial type. In addition, in borderline or hypoplastic ventricles, the supporting pedicle occasionally displayed a wide insertion along the ventricular wall. The length ratio of the superolateral support was significantly different between groups (normal: 0.46±0.08; borderline: 0.39±0.07; hypoplastic: 0.36±0.1; p=0.009). No significant difference, however, was found when analysing the inferomedial type (0.42±0.09; 0.38±0.07; 0.39±0.22, p=0.39). The angle subtended between supports was also similar among groups (113°±17°; 111°±51° and 114°±57°; p=0.99). A total of eight children with borderline left ventricle underwent biventricular repair. There were no significant differentiating features for papillary muscle morphology in this subgroup.
The superolateral support can be shorter or absent in borderline or hypoplastic left ventricle cases. The papillary muscle pedicles in these patients often show a broad insertion. These changes have important implications on surgical options and should be described routinely.
The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI), which is the total radiation arriving at Earth's atmosphere from the Sun, is one of the most important forcing of the Earths climate. Measurements of the TSI have been made employing instruments on board several space-based platforms during the last four solar cycles. However, combining these measurements is still challenging due to the degradation of the sensor elements and the long-term stability of the electronics. Here we describe the preliminary efforts to design an absolute radiometer based on the principle of electrical substitution that is under development at Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE).
Maternal diet-induced obesity can cause detrimental developmental origins of health and disease in offspring. Perinatal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) can lead to later behavioral and metabolic disturbances, but it is not clear which behaviors and metabolic parameters are most vulnerable. To address this critical gap, biparental and monogamous oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus), which may better replicate most human societies, were used in the current study. About 2 weeks before breeding, adult females were placed on a control or HFD and maintained on the diets throughout gestation and lactation. F1 offspring were placed at weaning (30 days of age) on the control diet and spatial learning and memory, anxiety, exploratory, voluntary physical activity, and metabolic parameters were tested when they reached adulthood (90 days of age). Surprisingly, maternal HFD caused decreased latency in initial and reverse Barnes maze trials in male, but not female, offspring. Both male and female HFD-fed offspring showed increased anxiogenic behaviors, but decreased exploratory and voluntary physical activity. Moreover, HFD offspring demonstrated lower resting energy expenditure (EE) compared with controls. Accordingly, HFD offspring weighed more at adulthood than those from control fed dams, likely the result of reduced physical activity and EE. Current findings indicate a maternal HFD may increase obesity susceptibility in offspring due to prenatal programming resulting in reduced physical activity and EE later in life. Further work is needed to determine the underpinning neural and metabolic mechanisms by which a maternal HFD adversely affects neurobehavioral and metabolic pathways in offspring.
The nonlinear property of SiC multilayer devices under Ultra Violet (UV) irradiation is used to design an optical processor for indoor positioning. The transducers combine the simultaneous demultiplexing operation with the photodetection and self-amplification. Moreover, we present a way to achieve indoor positioning using the parity bits and the navigation syndrome. A 4 bit representation with the original string colour message and the transmitted 7 bit string, the encoding and decoding accurate positional information processes and the design of SiC navigation syndrome generators are discussed. The visible multilateration method estimates the device’s position by using the MUX signal received from several, non-collinear transmitters. The location and motion information is found by mapping position and estimates the location areas.
In this paper a photodetector working as an active optical filter device is used to detect modulated visible optical signals for applications based on Visible Light Communication (VLC). The proposed application demonstrates the viability of indoor positioning using VLC technology established by the modulation of indoor ultra-bright RGB white LEDs. The signals of the internal red and blue chips of the white LEDs were modulated at specific frequencies and the generated photocurrent was measured by a pin-pin photodetector based on a-SiC:H/a-Si:H. This device operates as a visible optical filter with controlled wavelength sensitivity through the use of adequate optical biasing light. Thus it is able to detect different wavelengths which allow the detection of the individual components of the tri-chromatic white LED. This possibility is the basis for the indoor location algorithm. We demonstrate the possibility of decoding four transmission optical channels supplied by two different wavelengths of white LEDs modulated under different bit sequences. The identification of the signals received by the photodetector allows the location identification of the photodetector position and supplies indoor navigation.
In this paper we experimentally demonstrate the use of near-ultraviolet steady state illumination to increase the spectral sensitivity of a double a-SiC/Si pi’n/pin photodiode beyond the visible spectrum (400 nm-880 nm). The concept is extended to implement a one by four wavelength division multiplexer with channel separation in the visible/near infrared range. Optoelectronic characterization of the device is presented and shows the feasibility of tailoring the wavelength and bandwidth of a polychromatic mixture. Several monochromatic pulsed lights in the VIS/NIR range, separately or in a polychromatic mixture illuminated the device. Independent tuning of the wavelengths is performed by steady state 390 nm optical bias superimposed from front and back sides. Results show that, front background enhances the light-to-dark sensitivity of the medium, long and infrared wavelength channels, and quench strongly the shorter wavelengths. Back background has the opposite effect; it only enhances the channel magnitude in short wavelength range and strongly reduces it in the long ones. This nonlinearity provides the possibility for selective tuning a specific wavelength. A capacitive optoelectronic model supports the experimental results. A numerical simulation is presented.
In this paper we present a monolithically integrated wavelength selector based on a multilayer pi’n/pin a-SiC:H integrated optical filter that requires appropriate near-ultraviolet steady states optical switches to select the desired wavelengths in the VIS-NIR ranges.
Results show that the background intensity works as a selector in the infrared/visible regions, shifting the sensor sensitivity. Low intensities select the NIR range while high intensities select the visible part accordingly to its wavelength. Here, the optical gain is very high in the red range, decreases in the green range, and stays near one in the blue region decreasing strongly in the near-UV range. The transfer characteristics effects due to changes in steady state light intensity and wavelength backgrounds are presented. The relationship between the optical inputs and the output signal is established when a multiplexed signal is analyzed.
In this paper an integrated wavelength optical filter and photodetector for Visible Light Communication (VLC) is used. The proposed application uses indoor warm light lamps lighting accomplished by ultra-bright light-emitting diodes (LEDs) pulsed at frequencies higher than the ones perceived by the human eye. The system was analyzed at two different wavelengths in the visible spectrum, one in the blue (430 nm) and the other in the red (626 nm) regions, driven at different currents in order to change their optical intensities. The signals were transmitted into free space and measured using a pin-pin photodetector based on a-SiC:H/a-Si:H. This detector behaves as an optical filter with controlled wavelength sensitivity through the use of adequate optical biasing light. The output photocurrent was measured for different optical intensities of the transmitted optical signal and the extent of each signal was tested. An electrical model was used to support the physical operation of the device.
In this paper we present a multilayer device based on a-Si:H/a-SiC:H that operates as photodetector and optical filter. The use of such device in protein detection applications is pertinent in Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) measurements that demand the detection of visible fluorescent signals located at specific wavelengths bands. This device was designed to operate in the visible range with a selective sensitivity dependent on the applied electrical bias. Several nanosensors were tested with a commercial spectrophotometer to judge the performance of the FRET signals using glucose solutions of different concentrations. Two nanosensors (FLIPglu-90μM and FLIPglu-600μM) were tested with a commercial spectrofluorimeter to judge the performance of the FRET signals by using glucose solutions of different concentrations. These measurements were carried out by using these nanosensors both in the free form and immobilized form on inner epidermis of onion bulb scale. The proposed device was used to demonstrate the possibility of FRET signals detection, using visible signals of similar wavelength and intensity. The device sensitivity was tuned to enhance the wavelength band of interest using adequate electrical biasing.
We describe microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of a diphtheria outbreak that occurred in Maranhão, Brazil. The majority of the 27 confirmed cases occurred in partially (n = 16) or completely (n = 10) immunized children (n = 26). Clinical signs and characteristic symptoms of diphtheria such as cervical lymphadenopathy and pseudomembrane formation were absent in 48% and 7% of the cases, respectively. Complications such as paralysis of lower limbs were observed. Three cases resulted in death, two of them in completely immunized children. Microbiological analysis identified the isolates as Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar intermedius with a predominant PFGE type. Most of them were toxigenic and some showed a decrease in penicillin G susceptibility. In conclusion, diphtheria remains endemic in Brazil. Health professionals need to be aware of the possibility of atypical cases of C. diphtheriae infection, including pharyngitis without pseudomembrane formation.
In the present study, we investigated the development of hypertension in prenatally undernourished adult rats, including the mechanisms that culminate in dysfunctions of molecular signalling in the kidney. Dams were fed a low-protein multideficient diet throughout gestation with or without α-tocopherol during lactation. The time course of hypertension development followed in male offspring was correlated with alterations in proximal tubule Na+-ATPase activity, expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors, and activity of protein kinases C and A. After the establishment of hypertension, Ang II levels, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) and NADPH oxidase subunit expression, lipid peroxidation and macrophage infiltration were examined in renal tissue. Lipid peroxidation in undernourished rats, which was very intense at 60 d, decreased at 90 d and returned to control values by 150 d. During the prehypertensive phase, prenatally undernourished rats exhibited elevated renal Na+-ATPase activity, type 2 Ang II receptor down-regulation and altered protein kinase A:protein kinase C ratio. Stable late hypertension coexisted with highly elevated levels of Ang II-positive cells in the cortical tubulointerstitium, enhanced increase in the expression of p47phox (NADPH oxidase regulatory subunit), marked down-regulation of COX-2 expression, expanded plasma volume and decreased creatinine clearance. These alterations were reduced when the dams were given α-tocopherol during lactation. The offspring of well-nourished dams treated with α-tocopherol exhibited most of the alterations encountered in the offspring of undernourished dams not treated with α-tocopherol. Thus, alterations in proximal tubule Na+ transport, subcellular signalling pathways and reactive oxygen species handling in renal tissue underpin the development of hypertension.
In June 2011, a cluster of suspected cases of Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS), which can follow Campylobacter jejuni infection, was identified in San Luis Río Colorado (SLRC), Sonora, Mexico and Yuma County, Arizona, USA. An outbreak investigation identified 26 patients (18 from Sonora, eight from Arizona) with onset of GBS 4 May–21 July 2011, exceeding the expected number of cases (n = 1–2). Twenty-one (81%) patients reported antecedent diarrhoea, and 61% of 18 patients tested were seropositive for C. jejuni IgM antibodies. In a case-control study matched on age group, sex, ethnicity, and neighbourhood of residence, all Arizona GBS patients travelled to SLRC during the exposure period vs. 45% of matched controls (matched odds ratio 8·1, 95% confidence interval 1·5–∞). Exposure information and an environmental assessment suggested that GBS cases resulted from a large outbreak of C. jejuni infection from inadequately disinfected tap water in SLRC. Binational collaboration was essential in investigating this cross-border GBS outbreak, the first in mainland North America since 1976.
In this paper we present a monolithically integrated wavelength selector based on a double pin/pin a-SiC:H integrated optical active filter that requires optical switches to select visible wavelengths. Red, green, blue and violet pulsed communication channels are transmitted together, each one with a specific bit sequence. The combined optical signal is analyzed by reading out the generated photocurrent, under violet (400 nm) background applied either from the front or the back side of the device. The front and back backgrounds acts as channel selectors that selects one or more channels by splitting portions of the input multi-channel optical signals across the front and the back photodiodes. The transfer characteristics effects due to changes irradiation side are presented. The relationship between the optical inputs and the corresponding digital output levels is established through a 16-element look-up table to perform the optoelectronic conversion.
Results show that the wavelength selector acts as a reconfigurable active filter that enhances the spectral sensitivity in a specific wavelength range and quenched it in the others, tuning a specific band. A binary weighted RGBV code that takes into account the specific weights assigned to each bit position is presented and establishes the optoelectronic functions.
The purpose of this paper is the design of simple combinational optoelectronic circuit based on SiC technology, able to act simultaneously as a 4-bit binary encoder or a binary decoder in a 4-to-16 line configurations. The 4-bit binary encoder takes all the data inputs, one by one, and converts them to a single encoded output. The binary decoder decodes a binary input pattern to a decimal output code.
The optoelectronic circuit is realized using a a-SiC:H double pin/pin photodetector with two front and back optical gates activated trough steady state violet background. Four red, green, blue and violet input channels impinge on the device at different bit sequences allowing 16 possible inputs. The device selects, through the violet background, one of the sixteen possible input logic signals and sends it to the output.
Results show that the device acts as a reconfigurable active filter and allows optical switching and optoelectronic logic functions development. A relationship between the optical inputs and the corresponding digital output levels is established. A binary color weighted code that takes into account the specific weights assigned to each bit position establish the optoelectronic functions. A truth table of an encoder that performs 16-to-1 multiplexer (MUX) function is presented.
In this paper we demonstrate an add/drop filter based on SiC technology. Tailoring of the channel bandwidth and wavelength is experimentally demonstrated. The concept is extended to implement a 1 by 4 wavelength division multiplexer in the visible range.The add/drop filter consists of a p-i'(a-SiC:H)-n/p-i(a-Si:H)-n photodetector with two front and back optical gates. Tailoring the filter wavelength is achieved by applying a 400 nm background and changing front and back biased optical gates. Results show that, front background enhances the light-to-dark sensitivity of the long and medium wavelength channels and quench strongly the others. Back violet background has the opposite behavior; it enhances channel magnitude in short wavelength range and reduces it in the long ones. This nonlinearity provides the possibility for selective removal or addition of wavelengths. An optoeletronic model gives insight on the system physics and explains the light filtering properties of the add/drop filter.