Vibrational properties of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QD’s) embedded in AlAs and aluminium oxide were studied by Raman spectroscopy. The InAs/AlAs QD structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (001) substrates. The following main features of the phonon spectra of InAs/AlAs QD nanostructures were observed: 1) asymmetric lines of QD LO phonons affected by strain, confinement and size inhomogeneity of QD’s; 2) confined phonons of InAs wetting layer (WL); 3) two bands of interface phonons in the AlAs frequency region, attributed to modes associated with the planar interface WL/AlAs matrix and the three-dimensional QD/matrix interface; 4) doublets of folded acoustic phonons caused by periodicity in the multilayer QD structures. The influence of growth temperature, varied from 420 to 550°C, on the morphology of QD’s was investigated. QD’s grown at 420°C are found to have the smallest size. Increasing the temperature up to 480°C leads to the formation of larger InAs islands and improved size homogeneity. Further temperature elevation (above 500°C) causes partial re-evaporation of InAs leading to a decrease of QD size and density, and, finally, their complete disappearance. InAs QD’s embedded in aluminium oxide were fabricated by selective oxidation of the AlAs matrix in self-assembled InAs/AlAs QD’s. Micro-Raman spectroscopy data show that depending on oxidation conditions (humidity, temperature) InAs QD’s in an oxide matrix can be even more strained than before oxidation, or become fully relaxed. At the boundaries of oxidized/non-oxidized areas the presence of amorphous and crystalline As clusters is evident.