To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
According to contemporary phenomenological literature, dysphoria is the background mood characterizing patients with borderline personality disorders (BPD). In particular circumstances, it can take the form of a state of pressure, urge to act, and quasi-explosion, which is very dependent on situational triggers. There are currently no instruments able to measure this situational form of dysphoria.
To develop and analyze psychometric properties of the Situational Dysphoria Scale (SITDS), a self-report questionnaire that measures situational dysphoria.
To validate the SITDS for a future use in routine clinical practice and, more generally, to assess different forms of dysphoria in BPD in a more precise way.
The preliminary 58-item SITDS was administered to 105 BPD patients, along with other conceptually similar (Nepean Dysphoria Scale) and conceptually distinct (Cynical Distrust Scale, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-47, empathy quotient, and borderline personality severity Index-IV) instruments. The psychometric characteristics (reliability, internal structure, convergent and divergent validity) of the SITDS were then examined.
The final 24-item SITDS (with each item rated on three subscales: internal pressure, urge to act, and quasi-explosion) demonstrated excellent internal consistency (alpha = .91). A three-cluster solution was found, with clusters pertaining to personal events, interpersonal events, and environmental events. There were medium to strong correlations with NDS, and weaker but still significant correlations with CynDis, IIP-47, EQ, and BPDSI-IV.
The SITDS is a useful and easy-to-handle instrument for measuring situational dysphoria. Further research in clinical samples is needed.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Behavioral addictions are conceptually controversial and their relationship with mental health problems and psychopathology is poorly understood.
To review the relationships between personality traits, mental health issues and mental disorders on one hand and several behavioral addictions on the other. The latter include problematic Internet use, Internet gaming disorder, hypersexual disorder/compulsive sexual behavior disorder, compulsive buying and exercise addiction.
Literature review and conceptual synthesis.
Mental health issues, personality dimensions and mental disorders are commonly associated with behavioral addictions. Although some relatively specific associations were found (e.g., between Internet gaming disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, between compulsive buying and pathological hoarding and between exercise addiction and eating disorders), the specificity of most associations was low. Most studies were cross-sectional and the direction of causality, if any, was uncertain. Therefore, it is unknown under what circumstances certain mental health issues predispose to the particular behavioral addiction or represent a primary problem and when they are a consequence of behavioral addictions. This review also underscores the importance of distinguishing between certain behavioral addictions and overlapping conditions, e.g., between compulsive buying and bipolar disorder (mania/hypomania).
These findings suggest that proper conceptualization of behavioral addictions as distinct conditions or a manifestation of an underlying psychopathology will have to await results of the prospective studies. In the meantime, there are implications for treatment in terms of the importance of identifying and addressing the underlying or associated mental health problems in individuals with behavioral addictions.
Disclosure of interest
The author has not supplied his/her declaration of competing interest.
Over the past decade, emotion dysregulation has become a very popular term in the psychiatric and clinical psychology literature and it has been described as a key component in a range of mental disorders. For this reason, it has been recently called the “hallmark of psychopathology” (Beauchaine et al., 2007). However, many issues make this concept controversial.
To explore emotion dysregulation, focusing on problems related to its definition, meanings and role in many psychiatric disorders.
To clarify the psychopathological core of emotion dysregulation and to discuss potential implications for clinical practice.
A literature review was carried out by examining articles published in English between January 2003 and June 2015. A search of the databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Science Direct, Medline, EMBASE and Google Scholar was performed to identify the relevant papers.
Although, there is no agreement about the definition of emotion dysregulation, the following five overlapping, not mutually exclusive dimensions were identified: decreased emotional awareness, inadequate emotional reactivity, intense experience and expression of emotions, emotional rigidity and cognitive reappraisal difficulty. These dimensions characterise a number of psychiatric disorders in different proportions, with borderline personality disorder and eating disorders seemingly more affected than other conditions.
This review highlights a discrepancy between the widespread clinical use of emotion dysregulation and inadequate conceptual status of this construct. Better understanding of the various dimensions of emotion dysregulation has implications for treatment. Future research needs to address emotion dysregulation in all its multifaceted complexity.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Dysphoria is a complex emotional state that seems to be present in many psychiatric disorders (especially in BPD), but whose psychopathological core is still surrounded by a halo of vagueness, so that measuring its construct empirically is difficult and suitable tests to do that do not exist in Italy.
To analyze the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Nepean Dysphoria Scale (NDS; Berle & Starcevic, 2012), a self-report questionnaire that measures dysphoria, reflecting its multidimensional nature.
To validate the Italian version of the NDS for using it in routine clinical practice and to assess dysphoria in a more conceptually coherent way.
The NDS was administered to 132 university students, along with other conceptually similar (Beck Depression Inventory II, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale – Form A and Toronto Alexithymia Scale) and conceptually distinct (Anxiety Sensitivity Index – 3) instruments. Then, its characteristics (internal consistency, factor structure, convergent and divergent validity) were examined, comparing them with those of the original version.
The 22-item NDS demonstrated excellent internal consistency (alpha = 0.94). A four-factor solution was confirmed, with factors pertaining to irritability, discontent, surrender and interpersonal resentment. There were medium to strong correlations with the Beck Depression Inventory II, and weaker but still significant correlations with Dysfunctional Attitude Scale – Form A, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Anxiety Sensitivity Index – 3.
The Italian version of the NDS shows good psychometric properties, maintaining a high equivalence with the original version. Further research on clinical samples is needed.
Transsexualism is a gender identity disorder soon to be removed from the DSM criteria for mental disorders. The actual developmental/congenital origin of the disorder has yet to be established. One of the theories involves morphological and neuro-hormonal modification in the corpus callosum as a possible substrate.
Diagnostic assessment of a 22 year old female - male transsexual patient with a history of agoraphobia and migraine, reporting intermittent symptoms of numbness of left side of body and cheek and headaches.
Data on personal/family history was obtained and neurological examination was performed. MRI scan was acquired with a 1.5 T Siemens Magnetom system with a standard head coil. Sagittal three-dimensional 3D RAGE, contiguous 1.0 mm slices, 1 acquisition sequences were obtained.
Results and discussion: Family history of anxiety disorder was confirmed. Symptoms appeared following reduction of anxiolytic medication and emotional crisis. Neurological status showed signs of left pyramid deficit. NMR scan findings showed bilateral arachnoid cysts in genu corpus callosum probably of congenital origin. Co-morbidity versus concomitant disorders of psychiatric, neurological and congenital origin were discussed.
It seems that flying phobia is relatively common in general population. Studies show the lifetime prevalence rates of flying phobia in general population ranging from 2.5 to 2.9%
To ascertain in a sample of an urban general population.
The subjects in this study were participants from non-clinical, urban general population in Belgrade, Serbia. The sample consisted of 216 participants who were assessed in 2010. The assessment of the participants was done by the following instruments: Socio-demographic and flight history questionnaire and The Visual Analogue Flight Anxiety Scale.
On the Visual Analogue Flight Anxiety Scale participants mostly rated their intensity of flight anxiety on the low level. The mean value was 1.24 (SD = 1.42) and almost 2/5 of participants reported that they do not have any flight anxiety. But, 60.6% of sample reported that they have some level of flight anxiety. The statistically significant predictors of the flight anxiety were female gender and older age of the first flight. The other of socio-demographic (Age, Marrital status, Parenthood status, Education level, Employment) and flight history (History of flying, Age of first flight, Flying in the last 10 years and Traumatic experiences) variables did not emerge as possible predictors of the flight anxiety.
To ascertain what motivates patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) to perform compulsions.
Fifty-nine OCD patients underwent a comprehensive assessment, which included a structured interview designed to elicit one or more functions of their compulsions. Each patient was interviewed about the maximum of 3 compulsions.
The functions of 138 compulsions were identified, and compulsions were classified in accordance with OCD symptom subtypes as washing/cleaning (n=35), checking (n=33), mental/covert (n=23), ordering/symmetry (n=17), hoarding (n=10), and miscellaneous (n=20). Compulsions were most frequently performed to decrease distress or anxiety (n=87, 63%) or automatically, without patients thinking why they were doing it (n=87, 63%). However, the reasons for performing compulsions varied significantly, depending on the OCD subtype. In comparison with patients from other subtypes, those with checking compulsions were more likely to perform them because they believed something bad would happen if they failed to do so, patients with washing/cleaning compulsions were more likely to perform them to alleviate the feeling of disgust, and patients with mental and ordering/symmetry compulsions were more likely to perform them to achieve a “just right” feeling.
Identifying functions of compulsions improves understanding of the psychopathology of OCD and has important treatment implications. Cognitive-behaviour treatment approaches differ in accordance with the reasons for performing compulsions: exposure and response prevention tends to achieve better results when compulsions are driven by a need to decrease distress, anxiety or the feeling of disgust, whereas cognitive techniques may be more useful when compulsions are performed for other reasons.
To examine the associations between problem video game use and psychopathology.
The Video Game Use Questionnaire (VGUQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were administered in an international anonymous online survey, open to everyone over 14 years of age with a good understanding of English. The VGUQ was used to identify problem video game users on the basis of provisional criteria, whereas SCL-90 was used to assess various dimensions of psychopathology.
In comparison with other video game players (n=1789), those with problem video game use (n=156) had significantly elevated scores on all subscales of the SCL-90. Participants with and without problem video game use had higher scores on measures of obsessive-compulsive tendencies, interpersonal sensitivity (social anxiety), and depression than on other SCL-90 subscales. When compared to the U.S. male nonpatients, a significantly greater proportion of all male adult video game players and male adolescent problem video game players scored in the “pathological” range on all dimensions of the psychopathology. Relative to the U.S. male adolescent nonpatients, a significantly greater proportion of male adolescents without problem video game use scored in the “pathological” range on the measures of depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and paranoid ideation.
People with and without problem video game use may have similar patterns of associated psychopathology, but those with problem video game use exhibit more psychopathology. It is unclear to what extent these associations may be specific. Relative to other dimensions of psychopathology, anger and hostility are not particularly prominent in video game players.
To explore the gender differences in Axis I and Axis II disorders comorbidity in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia (PDA).
The sample consisted of 157 consecutive patients (71.3% females) with principal diagnosis of PDA. The assessment included administration of SCID-I and SCID-II. Women and men were then compared with regards to the type and frequency of the comorbid Axis I and Axis II disorders.
Axis I disorders. Men (2.02±1.82) and women (2.05±1.27) did not differ significantly the mean number of comorbid Axis I diagnoses per patient but women had a significantly higher rate of at least one comorbid Axis I diagnosis (87.5% vs. 73.3%) and a significantly higher rate of at least one comorbid anxiety disorder (79.5% vs. 53.3%). Women had a significantly higher frequency of specific phobia (58.9% vs 33.3%) and major depressive disorder (51.8% vs. 35.6%) than men. Men had a significantly higher rate of hypochondriasis (26.7% vs. 7.1%) and past alcohol abuse/dependence (33.3% vs. 0.9%). Axis II disorders. Men and women did not differ on the mean number of personality disorder (PD) diagnoses (1.02 vs. 0.96) and the distribution of at least one PD diagnosis (51.1% vs. 53.6%). Women had significantly higher rate of dependent PD (27.7% vs. 11.1%) and men had higher rate of narcissistic PD (15.6% vs. 6.3%).
To compare female and male patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) in terms of the co-occurring Axis I and Axis II (personality) disorders.
The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders were administered to 157 consecutive outpatients (112 females and 45 males) with PDA, who attended two anxiety disorders clinics. Women and men with PDA were compared with regards to the type and frequency of the co-occurring Axis I and Axis II disorders.
Women with PDA had a statistically greater tendency to receive co-occurring Axis I diagnoses and a greater number of Axis I diagnoses than men. Such a difference was not found for Axis II disorders. There was no gender difference in terms of the mean number of co-occurring Axis I and Axis II diagnoses per patient. There were significantly more women with at least one co-occurring anxiety disorder. Women had a significantly higher frequency of specific phobia, while men were significantly more frequently diagnosed with hypochondriasis and past alcohol abuse/dependence. With regards to Axis II disorders, only dependent personality disorder was significantly more frequent among women.
There are more similarities than differences between genders in terms of the co-occurring Axis I and Axis II disorders. Still, the relatively specific relationships between PDA and excessive alcohol use in men and between PDA and dependent personality traits and personality disorder in women seem important and have implications for clinical practice and treatment.