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The current study was undertaken to identify the sources of tolerance to bruchid in cowpea, by screening a set of germplasm accessions as a source for natural resistance. A total of 103 diverse accessions of cowpea were evaluated for resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. under no-choice artificial infestation conditions. Significant differences among the cowpea accessions were observed for oviposition, adult emergence, exit holes and per cent seed weight loss (PSWL) caused by the bruchid infestation. The accessions showed variation in physical seed parameters viz., colour, shape, testa texture, length, width and seed hardness. Among the seed biochemical parameters studied, per cent sugar content ranged from 0.322 (IC330950) to 1.493 (IC249137), and per cent phenol content ranged from 0.0326 (EC390261) to 1.081 (EC528423). Correlation studies indicated that PSWL had significant positive correlation (r = 0.335) with exit holes, oviposition (r = 0.219), adult emergence (r = 0.534) and seed roundness (r = 0.219). Adult emergence had a significant negative correlation with seed hardness (r = −0.332). Correlation with biochemical parameters indicated that PSWL had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.231) with sugar content and a significant negative correlation with phenol content (r = −0.219). None of the accessions were found to be immune to bruchid infestation. However, out of studied accessions, EC528425 and EC528387 were identified as resistant based on PSWL and moderately resistant based on adult emergence. These resistance sources of cowpea germplasm can be used as potential donors for development of bruchid tolerant/resistant cultivars.
This paper reports an integration of dual band microstrip antenna with thin film amorphous silicon solar cell which creates a wearable system to harvest microwave energy. The multiple layers in the encapsulation of the thin film solar cell are used as a substrate for microstrip antenna. The rectifier and matching circuit are designed on cotton jeans material and the whole system is mechanically supported by the foam of 5 mm thick. The performance of the antenna is studied for the mechanical bending condition. The device has maintained good power conversion efficiency. The efficiency of the voltage doubler is tested by varying radio frequency power levels from −30 to10 dBm. The voltage doubler conversion efficiency at 1.85 and 2.45 GHz are 58 and 43%, respectively, for a load of 7.5 kΩ for an input power level of −5 dBm.
To assess the presence of communicability and regret in cases of deliberate self harm in a tertiary care hospital. to establish relation of communicability as a preventive sign and regret as a good prognostic sign in cases of deliberate self harm.
All consecutive patients with deliberate self harm presented to the emergency department during a 1 year period were assessed on a preformed Performa designed by authors after being declared physically fit and were screened by Standardized Assessment of Personality Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS), PSLES, HAM-D and HAM-A.
Majority of respondents screened negative by SAPAS scoring. Most of the patient had significant stress in life .Most of them had marital conflicts, family conflicts and economic burden as major stressor leading to suicidal behavior. Verbal communication was the most common mode of communication. Most of the subjects 86.3% (69 out of 80) had severe regret about their attempt of deliberate self harm. It developed a high motivation in them not to attempt suicide next time in life.
Most of the suicidal acts are impulsive in nature and are not associated with any psychiatric co morbidity. Our study showed that if communicability is enhanced and this is considered seriously, providing supportive care by family most of the suicidal acts can be avoided. Regret arising after the suicidal act can be used to motivate the subject of deliberate self harm to avoid repetition of future attempts.
HIV like other chronic illnesses is an important contributing factor for psychiatric co-morbidity in not only HIV sufferers as well as their caregivers. Few studies show that a significant proportion of caregivers of HIV positive patients had psychiatric illness which is otherwise neglected but in turn hampers the quality of care provided to the HIV positive patient as well as the caregiver himself. This chunk of population if identified at a earlier stage, steps to teach them healthy coping strategies as well as timely initiation of management of psychiatric illness can decrease the burden of disease.
Aims and objectives:
To assess and compare the presence of psychiatric morbidity, stress and quality of life in primary caregivers of HIV patients.
All primary caregivers of HIV positive patient attending the Anti Retroviral Therapy(ART) center during six month period were assessed using a semi-structured Performa, International neuropsychiatric interview English version 5.0.0 (MINI PLUS) scale, PSLES, WHO QOL brief scale,. Data was segregated and analysed using appropriate statistical test.
Out of total 125 respondents 24(19.2%) were found to be depressive. Anxiety disorders were significantly prevalent (8.4%). other psychiatric disorders were somatisation, adjustment disorder etc. PSLES was fairly high and WHO QOL scoring was low in caregivers as compared to control group.
Significantly high number of caregivers was positively screened for psychiatric morbidity, most of them were stress related neurotic disorders. the stress level was more in caregivers and quality of life was compromised as compared to control group.
OCD is a complex disorder with multiple aetiological theories. Recent research points to role of autoimmunity as well as hyperactivity of glutaminergic pathways in aetiopathogenesis of the disorder. It is possible that autoimmune mechanisms may modulate excitatory neurotransmission resulting in OCD.
This study aimed to study the association between serum anti-basal ganglia autoantibodies (ABGA) and Glx (glutamate + glutamine) levels in caudate nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex as demonstrated by 1H-MRS (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy).
Thirty psychotropic-naive OCD patients and an equal number of age, gender matched healthy controls were studied using 1H-MRS and levels of Glx were obtained. ABGA was measured using ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) technique and categorised as present or absent in the serum.
ABGA was present in significantly higher proportion of patients as compared to controls (P < 0.05). Glx level was significantly higher (as measured by 1H-MRS) in patients with ABGA as compared to those without ABGA (P = 0.02). The study results did not differ based on age, gender, disease severity and illness duration.
The study demonstrates presence of ABGA in at least a subset of OCD population. The significant correlation between brain Glx levels and presence of ABGA provides a putative neurobiological framework for OCD. The strengths of the study include psychotropic-naive patients, blinded investigators and use of standardized instruments. The limitations include small sample size, use of Glx as proxy measure of glutamate and lack of other disorder controls. Similar studies on a larger sample are warranted for a better understanding.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In vitro studies have demonstrated possible neuroprotective effects of the following pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α against glutaminergic excitotoxicity in brain through different pathways.
In the current study, we aim to correlate level of the above pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum with glutamate levels in head of caudate nucleus measured using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a neuropsychiatric illness with possible multifactorial aetiology including immunological and excitotoxic factors.
Thirty psychotropic-naïve patients with OCD and an equal number of gender and age-matched normal controls were recruited in the study. A detailed psychiatric assessment was carried out including sociodemographic and clinical variables. A 3T MR imaging and spectroscopy session was carried out in head of caudate nucleus. Further, absolute quantification of glutamate level was obtained using LC model. Simultaneously, 5 mL of blood sample was collected and assayed for the above pro-inflammatory cytokines (Siemens, Immulite™). The level of glutamate was correlated with the cytokine levels in patients with OCD.
The level of Glx was significantly higher in patients with OCD as compared to controls (P < 0.05). The Glx level negatively correlated with two of the three pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL-6 and TNF-α (r = −0.807; r = −0.838; P < 0.05) while no significant correlation was demonstrated with IL-1β.
The findings provide preliminary evidence regarding possible neuroprotective effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines against glutaminergic excitotoxicity in patients with OCD. Further studies including patients with other psychiatric illnesses as controls are required for confirmation of the above findings.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The recent crash of Germanwings Flight 4U9525 appears to be the latest act of aircraft-assisted murder-suicide. The psychiatric preventive aspects of the murder-suicide need to be discussed, and effective measures for recognition and prevention of this murder-suicide are needed. Aircrew health is biased towards the physical ailments, and evaluation manuals have not discussed the mental health aspects, especially preventive strategies. These strategies involve multifactorial interventions, their applicability and usefulness are not globally validated.
Objectives and methods
Thanatology has since long, focused on early detection of mental distress and elucidating behavioural and psychological factors that predispose towards attempts at self-harm. Aircrew forms a different group from the general population. The recognition and preventive strategies in this special group, must, therefore, be tailored to this group with its special characteristics.
Data sources, study selection and data synthesis publications were identified via electronic searches using multiple search terms related to suicide prevention. The available effective preventive measures were juxtaposed on the current concepts in aerospace psychiatry.
Murder-suicide by aircrew is an event that is the culmination of undetected, ignored or even condoned discrete events that gradually progress and insidiously escalate. The importance of psychological factors in this catastrophic event needs to be disseminated amongst psychiatrists, and aircrew medical examiners. Ascertaining which components of suicide prevention programmes are effective in early recognition of aircrew who may attempt or complete the murder-suicide and putting into practice these to optimize the use of limited resources, is therefore essential and necessary.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous, suppurative and progressive inflammatory disease that usually involves the subcutaneous tissue and bones after traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. In India, actinomycotic mycetoma is prevalent in south India, south-east Rajasthan and Chandigarh, while eumycetoma, which constitutes one third of the total cases, is mainly reported from north India and central Rajasthan. The objective was to determine the epidemiological profile and spectrum of eumycetoma from a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, North India. Thirty cases of eumycetoma were diagnosed by conventional methods of direct microscopy, culture and species-specific sequencing as per standard protocol. The spectrum of fungal pathogens included Exophiala jeanselmei, Madurella mycetomatis, Fusarium solani, Sarocladium kiliense, Acremonium blochii, Aspergillus nidulans, Fusarium incarnatum, Scedosporium apiospermum complex, Curvularia lunata and Medicopsis romeroi. Eumycetoma can be treated with antifungal therapy and needs to be combined with surgery. It has good prognosis if it is timely diagnosed and the correct species identified by culture for targeted therapy of these patients. Black moulds required prolonged therapy. Its low reporting and lack of familiarity may predispose patients to misdiagnosis and consequently delayed treatment. Hence health education and awareness campaign on the national and international level in the mycetoma belt is crucial.
To study 2D and 3D dosimetric values for bladder and rectum, and the influence of bladder volume on bladder dose in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). The large patient data incorporated in this study would better represent the inherent variations in many parameters affecting dosimetry in HDR-ICBT.
Material and Methods:
We prospectively collected data for 103 consecutive cervical cancer patients (over 310 HDR fractions) undergoing CT-based HDR-ICBT at our centre. Correlation among bladder and rectum maximum volume doses and corresponding International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) point doses were estimated and analysed. Impact of bladder volume on bladder maximum dose was assessed.
The ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum varied from the volumetric doses to these organs. Further, bladder volume poorly correlated with bladder maximum dose for volume variations encountered in the clinical practice at our centre.
ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum are less likely to correlate with long-term toxicities to these organs. Further, in clinical practice where inter-fraction bladder volume does not vary widely there is no correlation between bladder volume and bladder dose.
Survival rates for paediatric cancers have increased dramatically since the 1970s, but childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk for several chronic diseases throughout life. Nutrition interventions promoting healthy family meals may support wellness for survivors, but little research has explored CCS family food preparation habits. The goal of the present study was to describe and compare food preparation practices of CCS and non-CCS families.
Typical evening meal preparation events were observed and recorded in participant homes. Recordings and notes were analysed using the Healthy Cooking Index (HCI), a measure of nutrition-optimizing food preparation practices relevant to survivor wellness. Demographics, BMI and nutrient composition of prepared meals were also collected.
Forty parents with a CCS or non-CCS child aged 5–17 years were recruited.
There were no major differences between the CCS and non-CCS families with regard to summative HCI score or specific food preparation behaviours. Meals prepared by CCS and non-CCS families had similar nutrient compositions.
The study revealed areas for practical nutrition intervention in CCS and non-CCS families. Future studies should consider adopting and tailoring nutrition intervention methods that have been successful in non-CCS communities.
GaN films have been grown on SiC substrates with an AlN nucleation layer by using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. Micro-cracking of the GaN films has been observed in some of the grown samples. In order to investigate the micro-cracking and microstructure, the samples have been studied using various characterization techniques such as optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface morphology of the AlN nucleation layer is related to the stress evolution in subsequent overgrown GaN epilayers. It is determined via TEM evidence that, if the AlN nucleation layer has a rough surface morphology, this leads to tensile stresses in the GaN films, which finally results in cracking. Raman spectroscopy results also suggest this, by showing the existence of considerable tensile residual stress in the AlN nucleation layer. Based on these various observations and results, conclusions or propositions relating to the microstructure are presented.
Background: Continuous electroencephalographic (cEEG) monitoring is essential to diagnosing non-convulsive seizures (NCS), reported to occur in 7-46% of at-risk critically ill patients. However, cEEG is labour-intensive, and given scarcity of resources at most centres cEEG is feasible in only selected patients. We aim to evaluate the clinical utility of cEEG at our centre in order to optimize further cEEG allocation among critically ill patients. Methods: Using a clinical database, we identified critically ill children who underwent cEEG monitoring in 2016, 2017 and 2018. We abstracted underlying diagnoses, indication for cEEG monitoring, cEEG findings, and associated changes in management. Results: Over this three year period, 928 cEEGs were performed. Among the 100 studies analyzed to date, primary indications for monitoring were characterization of events of unclear etiology (32%), diagnosis of NCS (30%), and monitoring of therapy for seizures (17%). Seizures were captured in 31% of patients (22% subclinical only, 5% electroclinical only, 4% both), which resulted in a treatment change in 90% of cases. Non-epileptic events were captured in 26% of patients. Conclusions: cEEG yielded clinically meaningful information in 57% of cases, frequently resulting in management changes. Subgroup analyses by cEEG indication and ICU location will be presented.
Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis of childhood and is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in the developed countries.
Data from hospital discharge records were obtained from the National Kids Inpatient Database for years 2009 and 2012. Hospitalisations by months, hospital regions, timing of admission, insurance types, and ethnicity were analysed. Length of stay and total charges were also analysed.
There were 10,486 cases of Kawasaki disease from 12,678,005 children hospitalisation. Kawasaki disease was more common between 0 and 5 years old, in male, and in Asian. The January–March quarter had the highest rate compared to the lowest in the July–September quarter (OR=1.62, p < 0.001). Admissions on the weekend had longer length of stay [4.1 days (95 % CI: 3.97–4.31)] as compared to admissions on a weekday [3.72 days (95 % CI: 3.64–3.80), p < 0.001]. Blacks had the longest length of stay and whites had the shortest [4.33 days (95 % CI: 4.12–4.54 days) versus 3.60 days (95 % CI: 3.48–3.72 days), p < 0.001]. Coronary artery aneurysm was identified in 2.7 % of all patients with Kawasaki disease. Children with coronary artery aneurysm were hospitalised longer and had higher hospital charge. Age, admission during weekend, and the presence of coronary artery aneurysm had significant effect on the length of stay.
This report provides the most updated epidemiological information on Kawasaki disease hospitalisation. Age, admissions during weekend, and the presence of coronary artery aneurysm are significant contributors to the length of stay.
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is widely used for the treatment of stage-I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patient-specific motion correlated with 4DCT could be essential for hypofractionated SBRT. All patients undergoing SBRT do not require motion management during the dose delivery. The objective of this study was to evaluate which patient may benefit from Gated SBRT.
Materials and methods
Treatment planning of 20 patients of stage-I NSCLC was analysed. Conventional and 4DCT scans were taken. Internal target volume as well as planning target volume (ITV and PTV) were determined in the CT data sets. PTVall phases created using 4DCT data sets and PTV15mm created using conventional CT data were compared. Also, ITVall phases were compared with ITV created from maximum intensity projections (ITVMIP). Suitability of patients for motion management-based treatment delivery was also evaluated.
The average ITVMIP to ITVall phases ratio is 1·06 indicating good agreement between them. Based on the ratio of intensity projections, 9 out of 17 patients were found suitable for our existing gated treatment.
4D CT is the main requirement in SBRT to identify the patients who can benefit from motion management during the dose delivery.
This study examined the hypothesis that xanthosine (XS) treatment would promote mammary-specific gene expression and stem cell transcripts and have a positive influence on milk yield of dairy goats. Seven primiparous Beetal goats were assigned to the study. Five days after kidding, one gland (either left or right) was infused with XS (TRT) twice daily for 3 d and the other gland with no XS infusion served as a control (CON). Mammary biopsies were collected at 10 d and RNA was isolated. Gene expression analysis of milk synthesis genes, mammary stem/progenitor cell markers, cell proliferation and differentiation markers were performed using real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Results showed that the transcripts of milk synthesis genes (BLG4, CSN2, LALBA, FABP3, CD36) and mammary stem/progenitor cell markers (ALDH1 and NR5A2) were increased in as a result of XS treatment. Average milk yield in TRT glands was increased marginally (approximately ~2% P = 0·05, paired t-test) per gland relative to CON gland until 7 wk. After 7 wk, milk yield of TRT and CON glands did not differ. Analysis of milk composition revealed that protein, lactose, fat and solids-not-fat percentages remained the same in TRT and CON glands. These results suggest that XS increases expression of milk synthesis genes, mammary stem/progenitor cells and has a small effect on milk yield.
Agriculture in the Central Himalayan Region depends on the availability of suitable germplasm as well as natural conditions. Due to extreme weather conditions, food and nutrition security is a major issue for communities inhabiting these remote and inaccessible areas. Millets are common crops grown in these areas. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) is an important crop and forms a considerable part of the diet in this region. The aim of the present study was to explore, collect, conserve and evaluate the untapped genetic diversity of foxtail millet at the molecular level and discover variability in their nutritional traits. A total of 30 accessions having unique traits of agronomic importance were collected and molecular profiling was performed. A total of 63 alleles were generated with an average of 2.52 alleles per locus and average expected heterozygosity of 0.37 ± 0.231. Significant genetic variability was revealed through the genetic differentiation (Fst) and gene flow (Nm) values. Structure-based analysis divided whole germplasm into three sub-groups. Rich variability was found in nutritional traits such as dietary fibre in husked grains, carbohydrate, protein, lysine and thiamine content. The collected germplasm may be useful for developing nutritionally rich and agronomically beneficial varieties of foxtail millet and also designing strategies for utilization of unexploited genetic diversity for food and nutrition security in this and other similar agro-ecological regions.
Although quality of life (QoL) is receiving increasing attention in bipolar disorder (BD) research and practice, little is known about its naturalistic trajectory. The dual aims of this study were to prospectively investigate: (a) the trajectory of QoL under guideline-driven treatment and (b) the dynamic relationship between mood symptoms and QoL.
In total, 362 patients with BD receiving guideline-driven treatment were prospectively followed at 3-month intervals for up to 5 years. Mental (Mental Component Score – MCS) and physical (Physical Component Score – PCS) QoL were measured using the self-report SF-36. Clinician-rated symptom data were recorded for mania and depression. Multilevel modelling was used to analyse MCS and PCS over time, QoL trajectories predicted by time-lagged symptoms, and symptom trajectories predicted by time-lagged QoL.
MCS exhibited a positive trajectory, while PCS worsened over time. Investigation of temporal relationships between QoL and symptoms suggested bidirectional effects: earlier depressive symptoms were negatively associated with mental QoL, and earlier manic symptoms were negatively associated with physical QoL. Importantly, earlier MCS and PCS were both negatively associated with downstream symptoms of mania and depression.
The present investigation illustrates real-world outcomes for QoL under guideline-driven BD treatment: improvements in mental QoL and decrements in physical QoL were observed. The data permitted investigation of dynamic interactions between QoL and symptoms, generating novel evidence for bidirectional effects and encouraging further research into this important interplay. Investigation of relevant time-varying covariates (e.g. medications) was beyond scope. Future research should investigate possible determinants of QoL and the interplay between symptoms and wellbeing/satisfaction-centric measures of QoL.
A scheme of resonant terahertz (THz) radiation generation by non-linear beating of two lasers in hot magnetized plasma with step density profile is investigated. Beating lasers of frequency difference ω1 − ω2 ≈ ωp(~1 THz) is incident obliquely on plasma surface and exerts non-linear ponderomotive force on plasma electrons. The plasma electrons start oscillating in the plane of incidence and give rise to space charge field to maintain plasma neutrality. In turn, both ponderomotive force and space charge field excites a non-linear surface current, responsible for THz radiation generation on the reflection side. The coupling between plasma wave and electromagnetic wave present (inside the plasma as well as on reflection side) becomes stronger in the presence of the transverse DC magnetic field. THz radiation amplitude is optimized at an angle of incidence θ ~ 50–70°.
Influenza A(H1N1) viruses of the 2009 pandemic (A(H1N1)pdm09) continue to cause outbreaks in the post-pandemic period. During January to May 2015, an upsurge of influenza was recorded that resulted in high fatality in central India. Genetic lineage, mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene and infection by quasi-species are reported to affect disease severity. The objective of this study is to present the molecular and epidemiological trends during the 2015 influenza outbreak in central India. All the referred samples were subjected to qRT–PCR for diagnosis. HA gene sequencing (23 survivors and 24 non-survivors) and cloning were performed and analyzed using Molecular Evolutionary Genomic Analyzer (MEGA 5·05). Of the 3625 tested samples, 1607 (44·3%) were positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, of which 228 (14·2%) individuals succumbed to death. A significant trend was observed in positivity (P = 0·003) and mortality (P < 0·0001) with increasing age. The circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was characterized as belonging to clade-6B. Clinically significant mutations were detected. Patients infected with the quasi-species of the virus had a greater risk of death (P = 0·009). This study proposes a robust molecular and clinical surveillance program for the detection and characterization of the virus, along with prompt treatment protocols to prevent outbreaks.