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To investigate the central electrode artefact effect of different ion chambers in the verification phantom using the dose calculation algorithms Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) and Acuros XB.
Materials and methods:
The dosimetric study was conducted using an in-house fabricated polymethyl methacrylate head phantom. The treatment planning system (TPS)-calculated doses in the phantom with detectors were compared against the dummy detector fillets using AAA and Acuros XB algorithm. The planned and measured doses were compared for the study.
The mean percentage variation in volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans using Acuros XB and the measurement in the head phantom are statistically significant (p-value = 0.001) for FC65 and CC13 chambers. In small volume chambers (A14SL and CC01), the measured and TPS-calculated dose shows a good agreement.
The study confirmed the CT set of the phantom with detectors (FC65 and CC13) give more artefacts/heterogeneity caused a significant variation in dose calculation using Acuros XB. Therefore, the study suggests a method of using phantom CT set with the dummy detector for mean dose calculation for the Acuros XB algorithm.
Formation of CoSi2 in Co implanted Si sample has been studied using
glancing incidence X-ray diffraction and depth resolved
positron annihilation techniques. The implanted sample exhibits near-surface amorphization in the temperature range between 300 K and 670 K. It is found that recrystallization of Si occurs at 870 K which inturn, triggers the formation of the CoSi2 phase at lower temperatures as compared to that obtained in thin film systems. The results are discussed in the light of enhanced intermixing brought by defect migration, associated with recrystallization.
The hormetic influence on silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) of the juvenile hormone mimic ω-formyl longifolene oxime propargyl ether (NL13) was assayed. Emulsions containing 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ppm of the compound were administered topically as a single dose, to two popular commercial silkworm hybrids, viz. KA × NB4D2 and PM × NB4D2, at 24,48, 72 and 96 h into the 5th instar, and economic characters of the larvae and resultant cocoons measured. A medium and absolute control were maintained in parallel. It was found that administration of 5 ppm of NL13 to 48-h-old 5th instars resulted in the maximum improvement in commercial traits. The possible role of exogenous JH-like compounds in eliciting this response in silkworm is discussed.
Fortification of salt with iron has been developed by the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) as a strategy for the control of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in India, similar to iodization of salt for control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Stability of the iron fortified salt (IFS), its bioavailability and organoleptic evaluation of food items containing the IFS have been demonstrated. Acceptability and effectiveness of the IFS in school children and in multicentric community trials have been demonstrated. With the introduction of universal iodization of salt as a national policy in 1988, NIN has developed a formulation for double fortification (DFS) of salt with iodine and iron. The stability of the nutrients under laboratory conditions along with their bioavailability were found to be good but varying with the quality of salt used. The DFS has been evaluated in controlled trials in tribal communities and in residential school children. The findings of these studies are discussed. Overall, in these trials, DFS effectively controlled iodine deficiency but a clear impact on reducing anaemia was not demonstrated. In residential schoolchildren, increased urinary excretion of iodine as well as reduced anaemia were observed. The quality of salt has been found to be an important determinant of the stability of iodine in DFS. Further evaluation of this potentially important intervention is in progress.
Contrary to existing models, strengths need not be a strong function of porosity for intermediate density, brittle materials. Flaw sizes can remain small (<50μm) if the void space is distributed uniformly in minimum dimension pores. For RBSN, fracture toughness decreases linearly with porosity for 0< porosity <40%. Strains to failure and specific strengths of these materials are higher than fully dense counterparts.
The ability of three anti-juvenile hormone agents (AJHAs) to prevent the juvenile hormone dependent phase of larval-pupal transformation has been investigated. Neck-ligated post-feeding last instar larvae of Spodoptera mauritia were treated topically with different doses of a juvenile hormone analog (JHA) or the AJHAs, tetra-hydro-4-fluoromethyl-4-hydroxy-2H-pyran-2-one (FMev), ethyl-4-[2-(tert-butyl carbonyloxy)butoxy] benzoate (ETB) and ethyl-[E]-3-methyl-2-dodecanoate (EMD). Untreated ligated larvae or those treated with acetone survived for 12 ± 1 days without showing any sign of pupal cuticle secretion. On the other hand treatments of ligated larvae with different doses of JHA induced pupation. Among the three AJHAs tested treatments of ETB promoted pupation. Treatments of ligated larvae with lower doses of EMD induced the formation of larval-pupal intermediates whereas those treated with higher dose moulted into either pupae or larval-pupal intermediates. FMev-treated larvae exhibited a complete inhibition of moulting and metamorphosis. In order to study whether AJHAs would prevent the JHA induced pupation, neck-ligated larvae were treated simultaneously with different doses of AJHAs and 1 μg JHA. Co-application of JHA with different doses of EMD induced pupation in majority of the ligated larvae and thus appears to a certain extent to counteract the effects of treatments of same doses of EMD alone. Co-application of JHA with different doses of ETB elicited pupation in all the surviving ligated larvae. To a large extent co-application of JHA with different doses of FMev failed to induce pupation. The significance of the findings is discussed in the context of the mode of action of these AJHAs.
Leaves of each of six cruciferous plant species investigated contained glucosinolates. There was no correlation between the total glucosinolate concentration of the species (identity of the glucosinolates unknown) and the oviposition response of the adult cabbage maggot, Hylemya brassicae (Bouché). Tests with chemical fractions isolated from rutabaga root tissue indicated that glucosinolates are the major, and perhaps the only, oviposition-inducing substances present in cruciferous plants. It is suggested that oviposition preferences are governed by the presence of some ’key’ glucosinolates and the absence of inhibitory chemicals.
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