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The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Better understanding of the complex interplay among key determinants of functional outcome is crucial to promoting recovery in psychotic disorders. However, this is understudied in the early course of illness. We aimed to examine the relationships among negative symptoms, neurocognition, general self-efficacy and global functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients using structural equation modeling (SEM).
Three hundred and twenty-one Chinese patients aged 26–55 years presenting with FEP to an early intervention program in Hong Kong were recruited. Assessments encompassing symptom profiles, functioning, perceived general self-efficacy and a battery of neurocognitive tests were conducted. Negative symptom measurement was subdivided into amotivation and diminished expression (DE) domain scores based on the ratings in the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms.
An initial SEM model showed no significant association between functioning and DE which was removed from further analysis. A final trimmed model yielded very good model fit (χ2 = 15.48, p = 0.63; comparative fit index = 1.00; root mean square error of approximation <0.001) and demonstrated that amotivation, neurocognition and general self-efficacy had a direct effect on global functioning. Amotivation was also found to mediate a significant indirect effect of neurocognition and general self-efficacy on functioning. Neurocognition was not significantly related to general self-efficacy.
Our results indicate a critical intermediary role of amotivation in linking neurocognitive impairment to functioning in FEP. General self-efficacy may represent a promising treatment target for improvement of motivational deficits and functional outcome in the early illness stage.
To systematically search for studies reporting outcomes for adenoidectomy alone as a treatment for paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea and use the data to perform a meta-analysis.
Nine databases, including PubMed and Medline, were systematically searched through to 1 April 2016. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement was followed.
A total of 1032 articles were screened and 126 full texts were reviewed. Three paediatric studies (47 patients) reported outcomes. Overall, apnoea–hypopnoea index values decreased from 18.1 ± 16.8 to 3.1 ± 5.5 events per hour (28 patients). Random-effects modelling demonstrated a mean difference of −14.43 events per hour (I2 = 23 per cent (low inconsistency)). The apnoea–hypopnoea index standardised mean difference was −1.14 (large magnitude of effect). The largest reduction in apnoea–hypopnoea index was observed in children aged less than 12 months (reduction of 56.6−94.9 per cent). Lowest oxygen saturation values improved from 80.0 ± 9.5 to 85.5 ± 6.0 per cent (13 children).
Adenoidectomy alone has improved obstructive sleep apnoea in children, especially in those aged less than 12 months; however, given the low number of studies, isolated adenoidectomy remains an area for additional research.
As a promising transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC), molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently attracted a lot of attention due to its graphene-liked two dimensional layer structure, which leads to potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the fabrication of mono- or few-layer MoS2 is limited to ether liquid exfoliation or CVD, and the chemical solution deposition is limited to ammonium thiomolybdate-based precursor. In this paper, hydrazine-based dimensional reduction technique is applied in the chemical solution deposition of MoS2 thin-film, and a larger area uniform thin-film is obtained from bulk powder MoS2. This solution-based process could be applied with a variety coating techniques and lead to wafer level MoS2 thin film production.
With the rise of ageing population, the need to restore the function of degenerative bone greatly drives the market for bone grafts. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is chemically similar to natural bone mineral and has been widely used in bone graft applications. However, its slow osseointegration process and lack of antibacterial property could lead to implant-related infection, resulting in implant failure. Studies on ionic substitution of apatite have gained attention in recent years with greater understanding of the composition of bone mineral being a multi-substituted apatite. An integrated approach is proposed by co-substituting silver (Ag) and silicon (Si) into HA (Ag,Si-HA) to modify its surface for bi-functional properties. Incorporation of Si can enhance the biomineralization of HA and introduction of Ag can create antibacterial property. Ag,Si-HA containing 0.5 wt.% of Ag and 0.8 wt.% of Si was prepared by a wet precipitation method. A phase-pure apatite with a nanorod morphology of dimensions 60 nm in length and 10 nm in width was synthesized. Surface Ag+ ions of Ag,Si-HA were demonstrated to prevent the replication of adherent Staphylococcus aureus bacteria for up to 120 h. Biocompatibility tests revealed that human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) proliferated well on Ag,Si-HA with culturing time. Enhanced cell attachment in turn permitted greater bone differentiation as evidenced in the increase of collagen type I and osteocalcin expressions of hMSCs cultured on Ag,Si-HA as compared to HA from day 14 onwards. Overall, co-substitution of Ag and Si could complement the benefits of each substituent by endowing HA with antibacterial property, and concurrently promoting its biological performance. Their synergistic effects can serve unmet medical needs and solve the problem of implant-related infection. This work also enhances the understanding of substituted apatite with multiple ions for bi-functional properties.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space observatory for optical follow-ups of
gamma ray bursts (GRBs), aiming to explore the first 60 seconds of GRBs optical emission.
UFFO is utilized to catch early optical emissions from GRBs within few sec after trigger
using a Gimbal mirror which redirects the optical path rather than slewing entire
spacecraft. We have developed a 15 cm two-axis Gimbal mirror stage for the UFFO-Pathfinder
which is going to be on board the Lomonosov satellite which is to be launched in 2013. The
stage is designed for fast and accurate motion with given budgets of 3 kg of mass and 3
Watt of power. By employing stepping motors, the slewing mirror can rotate faster than 15
deg/sec so that objects in the UFFO coverage (60 deg × 60 deg) can be targeted in
~1 sec. The obtained targeting resolution is better 2 arcmin using a close-loop
control with high precision rotary encoder. In this presentation, we will discuss details
of design, manufacturing, space qualification tests, as well as performance tests.
The UFFO (Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory) is a GRB detector on board the Lomonosov
satellite, to be launched in 2013. The GRB trigger is provided by an X-ray detector,
called UBAT (UFFO Burst Alarm & Trigger Telescope), which detects X-rays from the GRB
and then triggers to determine the direction of the GRB and then alerts the Slewing Mirror
Telescope (SMT) to turn in the direction of the GRB and record the optical photon fluxes.
This report details the calibration of the two components: the MAPMTs and the YSO crystals
and simulations of the UBAT. The results shows that this design can observe a GRB within a
field of view of ±35° and can trigger in a time scale as short as 0.2 – 1.0 s
after the appearance of a GRB X-ray spike.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO), which will be launched onboard the
Lomonosov spacecraft, contains two crucial instruments: UFFO Burst
Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) for detection and localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts
(GRBs) and the fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) designed for the observation
of the prompt optical/UV counterparts. Here we discuss the in-space calibrations of the
UBAT detector and SMT telescope. After the launch, the observations of the standard X-ray
sources such as pulsar in Crab nebula will provide data for necessary calibrations of
UBAT. Several standard stars will be used for the photometric calibration of SMT. The
celestial X-ray sources, e.g. X-ray binaries with bright optical sources
in their close angular vicinity will serve for the cross-calibration of UBAT and SMT.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Pathfinder for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) consists
of two telescopes. The UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) handles the
detection and localization of GRBs, and the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) conducts the
measurement of the UV/optical afterglow. UBAT is equipped with an X-ray detector, analog
and digital signal readout electronics that detects X-rays from GRBs and determines the
location. SMT is equipped with a stepping motor and the associated electronics to rotate
the slewing mirror targeting the GRBs identified by UBAT. First the slewing mirror points
to a GRB, then SMT obtains the optical image of the GRB using the intensified CCD and its
readout electronics. The UFFO Data Acquisition system (UDAQ) is responsible for the
overall function and operation of the observatory and the communication with the satellite
main processor. In this paper we present the design and implementation of the electronics
of UBAT and SMT as well as the architecture and implementation of UDAQ.
The flow structure in the shear layer and in the recirculation zone of a skimming flow downstream of a vertical drop without end-sill measured using high speed particle image velocimetry (HSPIV) and flow visualization method is presented. The interface between the sliding jet and the recirculation zone (zone below sliding jet) was enhanced through non-ventilation condition between the drop structure and the jet. The flow field measured through HSPIV was used to represent the characteristics of mean streamwise velocity in the shear layer and mean horizontal velocity in the recirculation zone. With the growth of shear layer as the jet slides down over the recirculation zone, the momentum exchange from the sliding jet into the recirculation zone via the shear layer increases along with energy loss. Hence, it was observed that the amount of energy dissipated in the skimming flow at the drop structure without ventilation is greater than that with ventilation by an average value of 50% for Yc / H ≥ 0.2 (where Yc = critical depth and H = drop height). However, the flow structure in the recirculation zone is found to be analogous to that of turbulent plane wall jet. The nonlinear regression analysis is used to fit the regressed velocity profiles to the measured HSPIV mean velocity distributions. Further, the appropriate characteristic velocity and length scales are selected to attain the unique similarity profiles both in the shear layer and in the recirculation zone of the skimming flow. The selection of the characteristic scales is also discussed. The similarity profiles are well comparable with those of napped flow without end-sill and with ventilation as well as of skimming flow with end-sill and without ventilation. It is interesting to observe that, the proposed similarity profiles for the shear layer also map the data of backward-facing step flow and cavity shear flow. In addition, the turbulence characteristics in the shear layer, including turbulence intensities, turbulent kinetic energy, viscous and Reynolds shear stresses, and turbulence energy-budget balance, are illustrated in detail. From the variation of turbulence production it is observed that near the drop structure the energy exchange is from the chaotic recirculation zone to the sliding-jet flow, while in the later part it is reversed. Furthermore, the analysis of turbulence energy-budget balance indicates very significant role of turbulence production, pressure diffusion and turbulence diffusion as compared with turbulence advection that has very minor role in turbulence energy-budget balance for the central part of the shear layer.
We report production of a self-injected, collimated (8 mrad divergence), 600 pC bunch of electrons with energies up to 350 MeV from a petawatt laser-driven plasma accelerator in a plasma of electron density ne = 1017 cm−3, an order of magnitude lower than previous self-injected laser-plasma accelerators. The energy of the focused drive laser pulse (150 J, 150 fs) was distributed over several hot spots. Simulations show that these hot spots remained independent over a 5 cm interaction length, and produced weakly nonlinear plasma wakes without bubble formation capable of accelerating pre-heated (~1 MeV) plasma electrons up to the observed energies. The required pre-heating is attributed tentatively to pre-pulse interactions with the plasma.
A Si-YBaCuO intermixed system has been formed using rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of Cu/BaO/Y2O2/Si layered structures, which were deposited on MgO substrates by electron-beam evaporation. The electrical and structural properties of the Si-YBaCuO system have been analyzed by resistivity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger depth profiling measurements. It was found that Si mixed with YBaCuO during annealing, thus creating an insulating film. This effect has been used to pattern YBaCuO films. The patterning process was carried out on an underlying silicon layer, rather than the YBaCuO film itself, using conventional photolithography or laser etching. After YBaCuO film deposition and RTA, the patterned region became superconducting separated by Si-YBaCuO intermixed areas. Micron-sized line features with Tc's above 77 K have been demonstrated.
Molecular beam epitaxy was used to grow Sim Gen superlattices on relaxed Si1-xGex buffer layers which symmetrize the strains between the heteroepitaxial layers. Samples with different superlattïce periodicities and individual layer thickness ratios were prepared. The compositions and defect structures of the GexSi1-x buffers have significant influence on the homogeneity and quality of the overlying superlattices. In particular, greater disorder was found in superlattice structures grown on Si0.5 Ge0.5 buffers than for those grown on buffer layers with significantly higher or lower Ge contents.
The rat sciatic nerve was transected mid-thigh and grafted with a silicone tube, the central 10 mm of which was filled with a collagen-glycosaminoglycan (CG) matrix. The rats were grafted contralaterally with empty silicone tubes as controls. The earliest compound muscle action potentials (CMAP's) at the plantar muscles were recorded around 11 weeks. After 30 weeks, the distal motor latencies recovered to about 50% higher than normal, the conduction velocity to about 50% normal, and the amplitudes of the CMAP's to about 50% normal. Of 7 rats in this study, all 7 nerves grafted with the CG matrix exhibited recovery, while only 1 grafted with the empty tube exhibited recovery. The CG matrix therefore appears to promote functional nerve regeneration across extended distances.