To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Many school-based interventions for obesity prevention have been proposed with positive changes in behaviour, but with unsatisfactory results on weight change. The objective was to verify the effectiveness of a combined school- and home-based obesity prevention programme on excessive weight gain in adolescents. Teachers delivered the school-based primary prevention programme to fifth- and sixth-graders (nine schools, forty-eight control classes, forty-nine intervention classes), which included encouraging healthy eating habits and physical activity. A subgroup of overweight or obese adolescents also received a home-based secondary prevention programme delivered by community health professionals. Schools were randomised to intervention or control group. Intent-to-treat analysis used mixed models for repeated continuous measures and considered the cluster effect. The main outcomes were changes in BMI and percentage body fat (%body fat) after one school-year of intervention and follow-up. Against our hypothesis, BMI increased more in the intervention group than in the control group (Δ = 0·3 kg/m2; P = 0·05) with a greater decrease in %body fat among boys (Δ = –0·6 %; P = 0·03) in the control group. The intervention group increased physical activity by 12·5 min per week compared with the control group. Female adolescents in the intervention group ate healthier items more frequently than in the control group. The subgroup that received both the school and home interventions had an increase in %body fat than in the control group (Δ = 0·89 %; P = 0·01). In the present study, a behavioural change led to a small increase in physical activity and healthy eating habits but also to an overall increase in food intake.
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of an improved growth, dietary nutrient availability and overall health of broiler chickens reared on recycled litter when fed a standardised combination of essential oils (EO; carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum oleoresin). To assess the effect of dietary treatments, feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, availability of dietary nutrients and energy, villus morphometry, excreta sialic acid concentration, hepatic antioxidants and serum amyloid A (SAA) when fed to broiler chickens were evaluated. Counts of Eimeria spp. oocysts were also determined in excreta samples. Four experimental diets were offered, including two basal control diets based on either wheat or maize that contained 215 g CP/kg and 12.13 MJ/kg metabolisable energy and another two diets using the basal control diets supplemented with the EO combination at 100 mg/kg diet. Each diet was fed to eight floor pens, containing two birds each, following randomisation. Birds fed the EO-supplemented diets had an improved (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR). Birds fed maize-based diet had an improved daily weight gain and FCR (P<0.05) compared with wheat-fed birds. Wheat-based diet tended (P=0.056) to have greater N-corrected apparent metabolisable energy and had greater fat retention coefficient (P<0.05) compared with maize-based diets. No differences (P>0.05) were observed in villus morphometry, sialic acid secretion, number of oocysts and SAA. Feeding the EO improved (P<0.05) the retention of dietary Ca and Na. Compared with maize, feeding wheat-based diets improved the retention coefficients for Ca, P and Na (P<0.05). Feeding dietary EO improved (P<0.05) the concentrations of the hepatic antioxidants, including carotene, coenzyme Q10 and total vitamin E. The hepatic concentration of carotene of the maize-fed birds was 55.6% greater (P<0.05) compared with the wheat-fed birds. These results demonstrated that the addition of a standardised combination of EO in wheat- and maize-based diets provided benefits in terms of feed efficiency, mineral retention and antioxidant status of the birds when reared on recycled litter.
China has been the world's largest producer of eggs for the last 30 years. There have been considerable recent changes in the structure of the egg industry due to rapid economic growth, improved supply chains and favourable prices. Since 2012, revenue from poultry has increased by 8.7% on average. Annual growth rate of egg production has been approximately 0.6 million tonnes per year from 2000 to 2016 (FAO, 2017), and 2016 saw the total eggs produced reaching a peak of 31 million tonnes. Egg production in China continues to provide the population with a significant proportion of their intake of high quality dietary protein. Egg consumption is expected to continue to increase with the rise in the urban population. It is probable that the highest increase in demand for eggs will be for ‘out of home’ consumption and in processed food products. These levels of production are associated with the spread of intensive systems. The poultry sector is no longer dominated by hundreds of millions of smallholders keeping birds as a side-line activity and many small farmers have ceased production. Chinese consumers are becoming more focused on the quality and safety of eggs. Future developments in the egg production are expected to concentrate on quality, safety and traceability of eggs.
Acupuncture has become increasingly popular in veterinary medicine. Within the scientific literature there is debate regarding its efficacy. Due to the complex nature of acupuncture, a scoping review was undertaken to identify and categorize the evidence related to acupuncture in companion animals (dogs, cats, and horses). Our search identified 843 relevant citations. Narrative reviews represented the largest proportion of studies (43%). We identified 179 experimental studies and 175 case reports/case series that examined the efficacy of acupuncture. Dogs were the most common subjects in the experimental trials. The most common indication for use was musculoskeletal conditions, and the most commonly evaluated outcome categories among experimental trials were pain and cardiovascular parameters. The limited number of controlled trials and the breadth of indications for use, outcome categories, and types of acupuncture evaluated present challenges for future systematic reviews or meta-analyses. There is a need for high-quality randomized controlled trials addressing the most common clinical uses of acupuncture, and using consistent and clinically relevant outcomes, to inform conclusions regarding the efficacy of acupuncture in companion animals.
Mental health stigma and discrimination are significant problems. Common coping orientations include: concealing mental health problems, challenging others and educating others. We describe the use of common stigma coping orientations and explain variations within a sample of English mental health service users.
Cross-sectional survey data were collected as part of the Viewpoint survey of mental health service users’ experiences of discrimination (n = 3005). Linear regression analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with the three stigma coping orientations.
The most common coping orientation was to conceal mental health problems (73%), which was strongly associated with anticipated discrimination. Only 51% ever challenged others because of discriminating behaviour, this being related to experienced discrimination, but also to higher confidence to tackle stigma.
Although stigma coping orientations vary by context, individuals often choose to conceal problems, which is associated with greater anticipated and experienced discrimination and less confidence to challenge stigma. The direction of this association requires further investigation.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) provides invaluable information during resuscitation efforts in cardiac arrest by determining presence/absence of cardiac activity and identifying reversible causes such as pericardial tamponade. There is no agreed guideline on how to safely and effectively incorporate PoCUS into the advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) algorithm. We consider that a consensus-based priority checklist using a “4 F’s” approach (Fluid; Form; Function; Filling), would provide a better algorithm during ACLS. Methods: The ultrasound subcommittee of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) drafted a checklist incorporating PoCUS into the ACLS algorithm. This was further developed using the input of 24 international experts associated with five professional organizations led by the International Federation of Emergency Medicine. A modified Delphi tool was developed to reach an international consensus on how to integrate ultrasound into cardiac arrest algorithms for emergency department patients. Results: Consensus was reached following 3 rounds. The agreed protocol focuses on the timing of PoCUS as well as the specific clinical questions. Core cardiac windows performed during the rhythm check pause in chest compressions are the sub-xiphoid and parasternal cardiac views. Either view should be used to detect pericardial fluid, as well as examining ventricular form (e.g. right heart strain) and function, (e.g. asystole versus organized cardiac activity). Supplementary views include lung views (for absent lung sliding in pneumothorax and for pleural fluid), and IVC views for filling. Additional ultrasound applications are for endotracheal tube confirmation, proximal leg veins for DVT, or for sources of blood loss (AAA, peritoneal/pelvic fluid). Conclusion: The authors hope that this process will lead to a consensus-based SHoC-cardiac arrest guideline on incorporating PoCUS into the ACLS algorithm.
Experimental comparisons of the nutritional value of different wheat cultivars commonly use feeds in meal form even though the large-scale broiler producers use steam pelleted feeds. The aim of this experiment was to examine the effect of steam pelleting on the performance, dietary N-corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), total tract dry matter retention (DMR), nitrogen retention (NR) and fat digestibility (FD) coefficients, and digestive tract development of broilers fed four different wheat samples in complete diets. Four European wheat samples, with different chemical composition and endosperm characteristics, were used in a broiler experiment. The wheat samples were milled through a 5 mm screen and four basal feeds containing 670 g/kg of each selected wheat sample were mixed. The basal feeds were then split into two batches and one of them was steam pelleted resulting in eight experimental diets. Each diet was fed ad libitum to eight pens of two male Ross 308 broilers from 10 to 24 days of age. Feeding pelleted diets improved (P<0.001) feed intake and weight gain, and daily water intake of the birds. Pelleting also improved dietary AMEn and FD (P<0.001) and DMR (P<0.05). An interaction (P<0.05) was observed between wheat samples and steam pelleting for NR. Steam pelleting improved (P<0.05) NR in the wheat sample with high starch and protein and hard endosperm but not in the rest of the wheat samples. Similar interactions (P<0.05) were also observed between wheat sample and steam pelleting for gain to feed (G : F) and water to feed (W : F) ratios. Pelleting improved G : F ratio the greatest in the wheat sample with high starch and protein and hard endosperm. Feeding the same wheat sample also decreased (P<0.05) W : F but only in the mash diets. Regardless of the wheat sample the values of dietary AMEn did not differ (P>0.05). Feeding different wheat types and pelleting did not (P>0.05) change the development of the gastrointestinal tract of the birds. The study showed that there were differences between four wheat samples when they were fed in pelleted complete feed, but no differences were observed when fed in mash form complete diets. Research on the interaction between pelleting and wheat chemical and quality characteristics is warranted.
X-ray beam-induced damage in nanoscale metal islands was investigated. Monolayer-high Ni islands were prepared on a Cu(111) substrate. High brilliance X-rays with photon energies between 8.45 and 8.85 keV illuminated the sample for about 11 hours. In order to track changes in the morphology of the islands, the synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM) technique was utilized. The result shows that X-ray illumination onto Ni islands does not induce noticeable damage. The study demonstrates that local beam-induced changes can be studied using SX-STM.
Although variation in the long-term course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not strongly predicted by existing symptom subtype distinctions, recent research suggests that prediction can be improved by using machine learning methods. However, it is not known whether these distinctions can be refined by added information about co-morbid conditions. The current report presents results on this question.
Data came from 8261 respondents with lifetime DSM-IV MDD in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Outcomes included four retrospectively reported measures of persistence/severity of course (years in episode; years in chronic episodes; hospitalization for MDD; disability due to MDD). Machine learning methods (regression tree analysis; lasso, ridge and elastic net penalized regression) followed by k-means cluster analysis were used to augment previously detected subtypes with information about prior co-morbidity to predict these outcomes.
Predicted values were strongly correlated across outcomes. Cluster analysis of predicted values found three clusters with consistently high, intermediate or low values. The high-risk cluster (32.4% of cases) accounted for 56.6–72.9% of high persistence, high chronicity, hospitalization and disability. This high-risk cluster had both higher sensitivity and likelihood ratio positive (LR+; relative proportions of cases in the high-risk cluster versus other clusters having the adverse outcomes) than in a parallel analysis that excluded measures of co-morbidity as predictors.
Although the results using the retrospective data reported here suggest that useful MDD subtyping distinctions can be made with machine learning and clustering across multiple indicators of illness persistence/severity, replication with prospective data is needed to confirm this preliminary conclusion.
This study builds on existing research on the prevalence and consequences of mental illness discrimination by investigating and quantifying the relationships between experienced discrimination and costs of healthcare and leisure activities/social participation among secondary mental health service users in England.
We use data from the Mental Illness-Related Investigations on Discrimination (MIRIAD) study (n = 202) and a subsample of the Viewpoint study (n = 190). We examine experiences of discrimination due to mental illness in the domains of personal relationships, community activities, and health care, and how such experienced discrimination relates to patterns of service use and engagement in leisure activities.
Our findings show that the cost of health services used for individuals who reported previous experiences of discrimination in a healthcare setting was almost twice as high as for those who did not report any discrimination during the last 12 months (Relative Risk: 1.73; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.39, 2.17) and this was maintained after controlling for symptoms and functioning. Experienced discrimination in healthcare (Relative Risk: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.84) or in relationships (Relative Risk: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.91), however, was associated with lower participation in, and hence lower costs of, leisure activities. Individuals who reported any discrimination in a healthcare setting had, on average, £434 higher costs associated with health service use while reported discrimination in the community was associated with increased leisure costs of £32.
These findings make an important initial step towards understanding the magnitude of the costs of mental health-related discrimination.
The frequency of sporadic cases of hepatitis E in humans in developed countries has increased in recent years. The consumption of raw or undercooked pig liver-based products has been identified as an important source of human infection. The question of possible massive human exposure to this zoonotic agent has been raised by the high prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine herds. However, little is known about the epidemiology of HEV on pig farms. A retrospective study, based on a previous prevalence study of 185 farms, was conducted on 90 farms located in Western France, randomly selected from this database, to identify factors associated with the presence of HEV in pig livers and HEV seroprevalence in slaughter-age pigs. At least one HEV RNA-positive liver was found in 30% of the sampled farms while seroprevalence in slaughter-age pigs at the farm level reached almost 75%. Different factors were associated with the two conditions. The risk of having HEV-positive livers was increased by early slaughter, genetic background, lack of hygiene measures and surface origin of drinking water. High HEV seroprevalence was associated with mingling practices at the nursery stage and hygiene conditions. These results can be used to determine on-farm measures to reduce within-farm HEV spread and infection of slaughter-age pigs.
Discrimination against people with severe mental illness is an international problem. It is associated with reduced social contact and hinders recovery. This paper aims to evaluate if experienced or anticipated discrimination is associated with social capital, a known correlate of mental health.
Data from the annual viewpoint cross-sectional survey of people with severe mental illness (n = 1016) were analysed. Exploratory univariate analysis was used to identify correlates of social capital in the sample, which were then evaluated in linear regression models. Additional hypotheses were tested using t tests.
Experienced discrimination made a modest contribution to the explained variance of social capital. Experienced discrimination from friends and immediate family was associated with reduced access to social capital from these groups, but this was not found for wider family, neighbours or mental health staff. Experience of discrimination in finding or keeping a job was also associated with reduced access to social capital.
Further longitudinal research is needed to determine how resources within people's networks can help to build resilience, which reduces the harmful effect of discrimination on mental health.
The aim of the present study was to compare BMI and anthropometric indicators of abdominal obesity in Brazilian adolescents from public schools between 2003 and 2008.
A comparison of anthropometric indicators in adolescents was done based on two cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2003 (n 530) and in 2008 (n 498). BMI (= weight/height2), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were evaluated. The age-adjusted means were compared between the two studies by linear regression and the percentile values were compared by quantile regression. A P value <0·05 was adopted for statistical significance.
Metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Two probabilistic samples of students aged 15–19 years old, from public schools.
There was a decrease in boys’ mean WC (72·9 cm v. 70·9 cm, P = 0·01) and an increase in girls’ mean BMI (21·1 kg/m2v. 22·0 kg/m2, P = 0·03). Among boys, the WC, HC and WHtR percentiles were lower whereas the WHR percentiles were higher in 2008 than in 2003. Among girls, the percentiles of all measures were higher in 2008, except for WHR.
Anthropometric measures among boys tended to decrease, while among girls there was a tendency to increase from 2003 to 2008, indicating an important gender effect and a higher morbidity risk associated with excess body fat in girls. The school setting offers opportunities for interventions to address this situation.
The study objective was to analyse the association between food insecurity and the weight and height status of adolescents from a low-income area in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The population-based cross-sectional survey included 523 adolescents aged 12–18 years, selected by a three-stage cluster sample. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire and family food insecurity was assessed with a validated questionnaire. The analysis estimated weighted means of energy and nutrient intakes by families' socioeconomic characteristics and the association between dietary intake with overweight and stunting. The prevalence of mild family food insecurity was 36%, and 24% of the families reported moderate or severe food insecurity. Overweight prevalence was 24%, and the prevalence of stunting was 9%, with no significant differences between sex or age groups. Family food insecurity was associated with unfavourable socioeconomic characteristics, but there was no association between socioeconomic characteristics (including family food insecurity) and overweight or stunting. Moderate or severe family food insecurity was inversely associated with intake of protein and calcium. In addition, stunting was associated with low calcium and iron intake. The co-existence of family food insecurity with overweight and stunting implies a high nutritional risk for adolescents from poor areas of Rio de Janeiro. Nevertheless, the observed absence of a statistical association between family food insecurity and weight status attests to the complexity of this issue.
We examined whether drinking water per se is associated with drinking less of other beverages and whether changes in BMI are associated with the intake of water and other beverages.
Secondary analysis of a randomized trial of fourth graders followed over 1 year.
Public schools in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Participants were 1134 students aged 10–11 years.
At baseline, a higher frequency of water consumption was associated with a greater daily intake of fruit juice (P = 0·02) and a higher daily frequency of milk (P = 0·005). In the intervention group, the baseline frequency of water consumption was negatively associated with weight change over 1 year but without statistical significance (coefficient = −0·08 kg/m2; 95 % CI −0·37, 0·24 kg/m2), whereas fruit juice intake frequency was positively associated with weight change: each increase in fruit juice intake of 1 glass/d was associated with a BMI increase of 0·16 (95 % CI 0·02, 0·30) kg/m2.
Our findings do not support a protective effect of water consumption on BMI, but confirm consumption of juice drinks as a risk factor for BMI gain. Students who reported high water consumption also reported high intake of other beverages; therefore, the promotion of water consumption per se would not prevent excessive weight gain.