Please note, due to essential maintenance online transactions will not be possible between 02:30 and 04:00 BST, on Tuesday 17th September 2019 (22:30-00:00 EDT, 17 Sep, 2019). We apologise for any inconvenience.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset.
Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe and the USA.
Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (∆*CFI) < 0.01]. The structure of EPDS responses significantly differed between Europe and the USA (∆*CFI > 0.01), but not between European countries (∆*CFI < 0.01).
Investigators and clinicians should be aware of the potential differences in expression of phenotype of postpartum depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes into account, beyond rhetoric, the context of a person's experiences and the context in which the research is conducted.
We prove that triangular configurations are plentiful in large subsets of Cartesian squares of finite quasirandom groups from classes having the quasirandom ultraproduct property, for example the class of finite simple groups. This is deduced from a strong double recurrence theorem for two commuting measure-preserving actions of a minimally almost periodic (not necessarily amenable or locally compact) group on a (not necessarily separable) probability space.
Many adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remain undiagnosed. Specialist assessment clinics enable the detection of these cases, but such services are often overstretched. It has been proposed that unnecessary referrals to these services could be reduced by prioritizing individuals who score highly on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a self-report questionnaire measure of autistic traits. However, the ability of the AQ to predict who will go on to receive a diagnosis of ASD in adults is unclear.
We studied 476 adults, seen consecutively at a national ASD diagnostic referral service for suspected ASD. We tested AQ scores as predictors of ASD diagnosis made by expert clinicians according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 criteria, informed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) assessments.
Of the participants, 73% received a clinical diagnosis of ASD. Self-report AQ scores did not significantly predict receipt of a diagnosis. While AQ scores provided high sensitivity of 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72–0.82] and positive predictive value of 0.76 (95% CI 0.70–0.80), the specificity of 0.29 (95% CI 0.20–0.38) and negative predictive value of 0.36 (95% CI 0.22–0.40) were low. Thus, 64% of those who scored below the AQ cut-off were ‘false negatives’ who did in fact have ASD. Co-morbidity data revealed that generalized anxiety disorder may ‘mimic’ ASD and inflate AQ scores, leading to false positives.
The AQ's utility for screening referrals was limited in this sample. Recommendations supporting the AQ's role in the assessment of adult ASD, e.g. UK NICE guidelines, may need to be reconsidered.
Strong recommendations have been made for the periodic developmental surveillance, screening, and evaluation of children with CHD. This supports similar calls for all at-risk children in order to provide timely, structured early developmental intervention that may improve outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of screening for language delay after life-saving therapies using the parent-completed vocabulary screen of the language Development Survey, by comparing screening with the individually administered language scores of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third edition.
In total, 310 (92.5%) of 335 eligible term-born children, born between 2004 and 2011, receiving complex cardiac surgery, heart or liver transplantation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in infancy, were assessed at 21.5 (2.8) months of age (lost, 25 (7.5%)), through developmental/rehabilitation centres at six sites as part of the Western Canadian Complex Pediatric Therapies Follow-up Group.
Vocabulary screening delay was defined as scores ⩽15th percentile. Language delay defined as scores >1 SD below the mean was calculated for language composite score, receptive and expressive communication scores of the Bayley-III. Delayed scores for the 310 children were as follows: vocabulary, 144 (46.5%); language composite, 125 (40.3%); receptive communication, 98 (31.6%); and expressive communication, 124 (40%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of screened vocabulary delay for tested language composite delay were 79.2, 75.7, 68.8, and 84.3%, respectively.
High rates of language delay after life-saving therapies are concerning. Although the screening test appears to over-identify language delay relative to the tested Bayley-III, it may be a useful screening tool for early language development leading to earlier referral for intervention.
To identify and systematically evaluate user-friendly smartphone snoring apps.
The Apple iTunes app store was searched for snoring apps that allow recording and playback. Snoring apps were downloaded, evaluated and rated independently by four authors. Two patients underwent polysomnography, and the data were compared with simultaneous snoring app recordings, and one patient used the snoring app at home.
Of 126 snoring apps, 13 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The most critical app feature was the ability to graphically display the snoring events. The Quit Snoring app received the highest overall rating. When this app's recordings were compared with in-laboratory polysomnography data, app snoring sensitivities ranged from 64 to 96 per cent, and snoring positive predictive values ranged from 93 to 96 per cent. A chronic snorer used the app nightly for one month and tracked medical interventions. Snoring decreased from 200 to 10 snores per hour, and bed partner snoring complaint scores decreased from 9 to 2 (on a 0–10 scale).
Select smartphone apps are user-friendly for recording and playing back snoring sounds. Preliminary comparison of more than 1500 individual snores demonstrates the potential clinical utility of such apps; however, further validation testing is recommended.
Bulk ion implantations of AlxGa1-xAs (x = 0.6 or 0.85) were performed at 77 K with 1.5 MeV Kr+, 1 MeV Ar+ or 1.5 MeV++ ions, and the resulting damage state examined by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry-channeling at 77 K and 293 K and transmission electron microscopy at 300 K. Amorphization of a portion of the A1xGa1-x As layer occurred at 77 K only for the 1.5 MeV Kr+ implantation, although the dose required to cause amorphization was higher for the higher Al content alloy. TRIM calculations[10–11] show that with this implantation the density of high energy density cascades varies as a function of depth through the layer and that these are superimposed on a high, uniform density of defects. Comparison of the ion channeling spectra at 77 K and 293 K shows that recovery occurs over a portion of the layer in the Al0.6Ga0.4As but is not detected in the A10.85Ga0.15As layer. In both alloys, the room temperature microstructure consists of an amorphous and a crystalline region. The amorphous region extends from the deeper AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs interface into the layer, and is separated from the crystalline material by a crystalline region containing planar defects. The difference between the alloys is in the extent of this latter region, which decreases in width with increasing Al content. These results will be used to examine current models for amorphization in the AlxGa1-xAs system.
Here, we report successful measurements by surface Brillouin scattering (SBS) and scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) of the elastic properties of small specimens of amorphous carbon obtained from C60 under high pressure and temperature. The superhard phases of amorphous carbon were synthesized from C60 at pressure 13 – 13.5 GPa and temperature 800–900°C. Two types of acoustic waves have been detected by SBS in superhard samples: surface Rayleigh wave and bulk longitudinal wave. The longitudinal velocity (νL) in the hardest sample is slightly lower than longitudinal wave velocity in diamond in  direction. Simultaneous measurements of the Rayleigh and longitudinal wave velocities make it possible to determine shear and bulk elastic moduli of the specimens. Obtained elastic properties for amorphous carbon synthesized under pressure 13.5 GPa and temperature 900°C are close to those for diamond, indicating that bonds among amorphous carbon network are diamond bonding dominated.
The application of cathodic-arc-deposited films has been very slow due to the infamous macroparticle problem. We report about the application of the open Twist Filter as the key component to an advanced filtered cathodic arc system. Ultrathin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films have been deposited on 6 inch wafers. Film propertieshave been investigated with respect to application in the magnetic data storage industry. Films can be deposited in a reproducible manner where film thickness control relies on arc pulse counting once deposition rates have been calibrated. Films of 3 nm thickness have been deposited that passed acid and Battelle corrosion tests. Monte Carlo Simulation of energetic carbon deposition shows the formation of an intermixed transition layer of about 1 nm. The simulation indicates that because the displacement energy of carbon isnot smaller than of magnetic materials, films thinner than 2 nm are either not high in sp3 content or represent a carbidic phase.