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Hidden hunger is widespread in India. Individual dietary diversity score (IDDS) is a measure of the nutrient adequacy of the diet. The FAO has set guidelines for the measurement of dietary diversity: the IDDS and the minimum dietary diversity score for women (MDD-W) to assess nutritional deficiency, but validation against nutritional biomarkers is required. Using available data among rural youth (17 years) from the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study, the validity of DDS was assessed to measure deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate and Hb. Of the 355 boys and 305 girls, 19 % were classified as underweight, 57 % as vitamin B12 deficient (<150 pmol/l) and 22 % as anaemic (<120/130 g/l). Cereals, legumes and ‘other-vegetables’ were the most frequently consumed foods. More boys than girls consumed milk, flesh, eggs and micronutrient-dense foods. Median IDDS of 4 (interquartile range (IQR) 3–4) and MDD-W of 6 (IQR 5–7) were low. Youth with vitamin B12 deficiency had a higher likelihood of an IDDS ≤ 4 (1·89; 95 % CI 1·24, 2·87) or an MDD-W ≤ 5 (1·40; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·94). Youth with anaemia were more likely to have an IDDS ≤ 4 (1·76; 95 % CI 1·01, 3·14) adjusted for socio-economic scores, BMI, energy intake and sex. Folate deficiency was low (3 %) and was not associated with either score. Youth with lowest plasma vitamin B12 and Hb infrequently or never consumed dairy products/non-vegetarian foods. These rural Indian youth were underweight, had low DDS and consumed foods low in good-quality proteins and micronutrients. Associations of DDS with circulating micronutrients indicate that DDS is a valid measure to predict vitamin B12 deficiency and anaemia.
Pervasive Refusal Syndrome (PRS) is a relatively new diagnostic concept, that describes a rare and potentially life threatening condition, in which children refuse to walk.
talk, eat, drink, engage in self care, and take part in day to day activities (Lask et al, 1991).
PRS is not included in any of the psychiatric classification systems (ICD 10, DSM IV), although consensus exists within the literature as to its existence. Lask comments in his paper on Pervasive Refusal Syndrome that he has consulted on only 50 cases worldwide (Lask, 2004).
The authors will share their clinical experience of treating seven new cases of PRS in a Regional CAMHS inpatient hospital. Patients with PRS often require hospital admission for assessment and exclusion of other medical, neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, because of the rarity many medical and psychiatric professionals have little experience of the treatment and rehabilitation required.
The specific MDT management approach necessary to meet the complex needs of patients with PRS will be discussed, as treatment is often counterintuitive, and some approaches can result in deterioration rather than improvement.
In terms of improvement and recovery from the disorder, less is known about long term follow-up, as only a few studies have reported on immediate outcome. The authors have undertaken a long term follow-up (in press) and will discuss issues relating to prognosis.
A specific MDT treatment approach for PRS will be discussed, alongside the clinical decisions and dilemmas involved in following this approach.
First Rank Symptoms (FRS) - a group of intriguing experiences characterized by striking breach of ‘self versus non-self’ boundaries - have had a critical influence on the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Inferior Parietal Lobule is implicated in the pathogenesis of FRS in Schizophrenia. However, the role of Planum Parietale (PP) in the genesis of FRS is yet to be examined.
Aims & objectives
This first time study (to the best of our knowledge), aims to examine antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients for the effect of FRS status on volume of PP.
In this study we examined the volume of PP in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients (n = 32; M:F = 16:16) in comparison with age, sex, and handedness matched (as a group) healthy comparison subjects (n = 34; M:F = 16:18) using valid method with good inter-rater reliability.
Female Schizophrenia patients showed significant volume reduction in right PP in comparison with female healthy controls (F = 7.2; p = 0.01). However, male patients did not. There was a significant effect of schneiderian FRS in female patients in that those who had FRS had significantly smaller volume of right PP than healthy controls (F = 3.8; p = 0.03); where those female patients who were FRS negative did not differ. Left PP volume did not differ between patients and controls.
Current study supports previous studies which have implicated the role of parietal lobe in pathogenesis of FRS. Specific role of PP in FRS generation and possible implication of sex differences needs further systematic studies.
Thirty-one accessions of Oryza glaberrima were evaluated to study the genetic variability, correlation, path, principal component analysis (PCA) and D2 analysis. Box plots depicted high estimates of variability for days to 50% flowering and grain yield per plant in Kharif 2016, plant height, productive tillers, panicle length and 1000 seed weight in Kharif 2017. Correlation studies revealed days to 50% flowering, plant height, panicle length, number of productive tillers, spikelets per panicle having a high direct positive association with grain yield, while path analysis identified the number of productive tillers having the maximum direct positive effect on grain yield. Days to 50% flowering via spikelets per panicle, productive tillers and plant height via spikelets per panicle exhibited high positive indirect effects on grain yield per plant. PCA showed that a cumulative variance of 54.752% from yield per plant, days to 50% flowering, spikelets per panicle and panicle length, contributing almost all the variation of traits while D2 analysis identified days to 50% flowering and grain yield per plant contributing maximum to the genetic diversity. Therefore, selection of accessions with more number of productive tillers and early maturity would be most suitable for yield improvement programme. The study has revealed the utility of African rice germplasm and its potential to utilize in the genetic improvement of indica rice varieties.
GaN films have been grown on SiC substrates with an AlN nucleation layer by using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. Micro-cracking of the GaN films has been observed in some of the grown samples. In order to investigate the micro-cracking and microstructure, the samples have been studied using various characterization techniques such as optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface morphology of the AlN nucleation layer is related to the stress evolution in subsequent overgrown GaN epilayers. It is determined via TEM evidence that, if the AlN nucleation layer has a rough surface morphology, this leads to tensile stresses in the GaN films, which finally results in cracking. Raman spectroscopy results also suggest this, by showing the existence of considerable tensile residual stress in the AlN nucleation layer. Based on these various observations and results, conclusions or propositions relating to the microstructure are presented.
One of the main challenges of future aircraft engines is to achieve low pollutant emissions while maintaining high combustion efficiencies and operability. The Flameless Combustion (FC) regime is pointed as one of the promising solutions due to its well-distributed reaction zones that yield low NOx emissions and oscillations. A dual-combustor configuration potentially facilitates the attainment of FC in the Inter-Turbine Burner (ITB). The development of such burner is dependent on knowledge regarding NOx formation and the parameters affecting it. It is known from the literature that the NOx formation mechanisms are different in FC. Therefore, in an attempt to clarify some of the mechanisms involved in NOx formation at relevant conditions, a chemical reactor network model developed to represent the ITB is explored. The role of prompt NOx was previously shown to be dominant at relatively low inlet temperatures and atmospheric pressure. In order to check these findings, five chemical reaction mechanisms were employed. All of them overpredicted NOx emissions and the overprediction is likely to be caused by the prompt NOx subset implemented in these mechanisms. Higher reactants temperatures and operational pressures were also investigated. Overall NOx emissions increased with temperature and the NOx peak moved to lower equivalence ratios. Operational pressure changed the emissions trend with global equivalence ratio. Leaner conditions had behaviour similar to that of conventional combustors (increase in NOx), while NOx dropped with further increase in equivalence ratio due to suppression of the prompt NOx production, as well as an increase in NO reburning. These trends highlight the differences between the emission behaviour of the ITB with those of a conventional combustion system.
Surgery for CHD has been slow to develop in parts of the former Soviet Union. The impact of an 8-year surgical assistance programme between an emerging centre and a multi-disciplinary international team that comprised healthcare professionals from developed cardiac programmes is analysed and presented.
Material and methods
The international paediatric assistance programme included five main components – intermittent clinical visits to the site annually, medical education, biomedical engineering support, nurse empowerment, and team-based practice development. Data were analysed from visiting teams and local databases before and since commencement of assistance in 2007 (era A: 2000–2007; era B: 2008–2015). The following variables were compared between periods: annual case volume, operative mortality, case complexity based on Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1), and RACHS-adjusted standardised mortality ratio.
A total of 154 RACHS-classifiable operations were performed during era A, with a mean annual case volume by local surgeons of 19.3 at 95% confidence interval 14.3–24.2, with an operative mortality of 4.6% and a standardised mortality ratio of 2.1. In era B, surgical volume increased to a mean of 103.1 annual cases (95% confidence interval 69.1–137.2, p<0.0001). There was a non-significant (p=0.84) increase in operative mortality (5.7%), but a decrease in standardised mortality ratio (1.2) owing to an increase in case complexity. In era B, the proportion of local surgeon-led surgeries during visits from the international team increased from 0% (0/27) in 2008 to 98% (58/59) in the final year of analysis.
The model of assistance described in this report led to improved adjusted mortality, increased case volume, complexity, and independent operating skills.
Association mapping (AM), an alternative method of quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery, exploits historic linkage disequilibrium (LD) present in natural populations. AM is effective in self-pollinated crops such as Dolichos bean as LD extends over longer genomic distance driven-by low rate of recombination and thereby requiring fewer markers for exploring marker-traits associations. A core set of Dolichos bean germplasm consisting of 64 accessions was evaluated for nine quantitative traits (QTs) during 2014 and 2015 rainy seasons and genotyped using 234 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. Substantial diversity was observed among the core set accessions at loci controlling QTs and 95 of the 234 SSR markers were found polymorphic. The structure analysis and low magnitude of fixation indices suggested weak population structure, which in-turn indicated the low possibility of false discovery rates in the marker-QTs association. The marker allele's scores were regressed onto phenotypes at nine QTs following general linear model and mixed linear model for exploring marker-QTs associations. Significantly higher number of SSR markers was found associated with genomic regions controlling nine QTs. A few of the markers such as KT Dolichos (KTD) 200 for days to 50% flowering, KTD 273 for fresh pod yield per plant and KTD 130 for fresh pods per plant explained ≥10% of the trait variations. The study could also identify a few SSR markers such as KTD 273, KTD 271 and KTD 130 linked to multiple traits. These linked SSR markers are suggested for validation for their use in marker-assisted Dolichos bean improvement programmes.
This study was conducted to characterize new plant type (NPT) traits among 650 genetically diverse rice genotypes of tropical japonica and indica and to establish an initial core set for NPT traits. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits assessed except flag length and width and leaf angles. Dendrogram categorized the genotypes into five distinct duration groups. Genotypes viz., Pumphamah, IRGC5097, IRGC37015, IRGC43741, IRGC50448, IRGC53089, IRGC39111, IRGC18021, Haorei Machang, IRGC44069, IRGC8269, Thangmoi, IRGC33130 and IRGC29772 were identified as possessing strong culm. Long panicles with a length of more than 35 cm were found in IRGC8269, IRGC9147, IRGC14694, IRGC19642, IRGC27435, IRGC39111, IRGC31051, IRGC26011and IRGC25892. Ideal leaf angle of NPT genotypes of 5°, 10° and 20° of flag leaf, 1st and 2nd leaves was not found in any genotype but with a combination of 5°, 10° and 10° was observed in IRGC63102 and IRGC66644. NPT flag leaf length and width of 50 and 2 cm, respectively, was seen in ‘Kemenya Kepeu’ and ‘IRGC29772’. High grain number of more than 350 was observed in IRGC53089, IRGC31063 and Azhoghi. A total of 72 genotypes were found with a combination of one or more ideal plant type traits of which, hierarchical cluster analysis based on genetic distances selected 32 as NPT core set. This core set will serve as an ideal genetic resource for breeding programs aimed at NPT development.
We have proposed a three-species hybrid food chain model with multiple time delays. The interaction between the prey and the middle predator follows Holling type (HT) II functional response, while the interaction between the top predator and its only food, the middle predator, is taken as a general functional response with the mutual interference schemes, such as Crowley–Martin (CM), Beddington–DeAngelis (BD) and Hassell–Varley (HV) functional responses. We analyse the model system which employs HT II and CM functional responses, and discuss the local and global stability analyses of the coexisting equilibrium solution. The effect of gestation delay on both the middle and top predator has been studied. The dynamics of model systems are affected by both factors: gestation delay and the form of functional responses considered. The theoretical results are supported by appropriate numerical simulations, and bifurcation diagrams are obtained for biologically feasible parameter values. It is interesting from the application point of view to show how an individual delay changes the dynamics of the model system depending on the form of functional response.
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been a major cause of family, social, and personal strife for centuries, with current prevalence estimates of 14% for 12-month and 29% lifetime AUD. Neuropsychological testing of selective cognitive, sensory, and motor functions complemented with in vivo brain imaging has enabled tracking the consequences of AUD, which follows a dynamic course of development, maintenance, and recovery or relapse. Controlled studies of alcoholism reviewed herein provide evidence for disruption of selective functions involving executive, visuospatial, mnemonic, emotional, and attentional processes, response inhibition, prosody, and postural stability and brain systems supporting these functions. On a hopeful front, longitudinal study provides convincing evidence for improvement in brain structure and function following sustained sobriety. These discoveries have a strong legacy in the International Neuropsychological Society (INS), starting from its early days when assumptions regarding which brain regions were disrupted relied solely on patterns of functional sparing and impairment deduced from testing. This review is based on the symposium presentation delivered at the 2017 annual North American meeting of the INS in celebration of the 50th anniversary since its institution in 1967. In the spirit of the meeting’s theme, “Binding the Past and Present,” the lecture and this review recognized the past by focusing on early, rigorous neuropsychological studies of alcoholism and their influence on research currently conducted using imaging methods enabling hypothesis testing of brain substrates of observed functional deficits. (JINS, 2017, 23, 843–859)
Studies of language disorders have shaped our understanding of brain–language relationships over the last two centuries. This article provides a review of this research and how our thinking has changed over the years regarding how the brain processes language. In the 19th century, a series of famous case studies linked distinct speech and language functions to specific portions of the left hemisphere of the brain, regions that later came to be known as Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. One hundred years later, the emergence of new brain imaging tools allowed for the visualization of brain injuries in vivo that ushered in a new era of brain-behavior research and greatly expanded our understanding of the neural processes of language. Toward the end of the 20th century, sophisticated neuroimaging approaches allowed for the visualization of both structural and functional brain activity associated with language processing in both healthy individuals and in those with language disturbance. More recently, language is thought to be mediated by a much broader expanse of neural networks that covers a large number of cortical and subcortical regions and their interconnecting fiber pathways. Injury to both grey and white matter has been seen to affect the complexities of language in unique ways that have altered how we think about brain–language relationships. The findings that support this paradigm shift are described here along with the methodologies that helped to discover them, with some final thoughts on future directions, techniques, and treatment interventions for those with communication impairments. (JINS, 2017, 23, 741–754)
Fast photometric observations of a nova-like variable KR Aurigae and the intermediate polar BG CMi (3A0729+103) were made in the B and U bands during 1984–89 to study pulsations in them. The light curves of KR Aur show large amplitude quasi-periodic pulsations with periods in the range 500–800s which can be ascribed to inhomogeneities in the accretion disc. The light curves of the X-ray emitting intermediate polar BG CMi show variable amplitude pulsations with 913s period. From the times of maxima of the pulsations obtained from observations over the period 1984–1989, the pulsation period is derived to be 0.010572966 ± 8 days and the spin-up rate to be (−5.7 ± 0.5) × 10−11 ss−1. The spin-up rate is consistent with the pulsating source being a white dwarf and not a neutron star.
A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in five regions of India by adopting a multistage random sampling procedure. Information was collected from the participants about socio-demographic particulars such as age, sex, occupation, education, etc. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured and three measurements of blood pressure were obtained. Fasting blood sugar was assessed using a Glucometer. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, χ2 test for association and logistic regression analysis. A total of 7531 subjects were covered for anthropometry and blood pressure. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was 29 and 21 %, respectively, and was higher in the Southern region (40 % each) as compared with other regions. The prevalence of hypertension was 18 and 16 % and diabetes was 9·5 % each among men and women, respectively. The risk of hypertension and diabetes was significantly higher among adults from the Southern and Western regions, the among elderly, among overweight/obese individuals and those with abdominal obesity. In conclusion, the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypertension was higher in the Southern region, whereas diabetes was higher in the Southern and Western regions. Factors such as increasing age, male sex, overweight/obesity, and abdominal obesity were important risk factors for hypertension and diabetes. Appropriate health and nutrition education should be given to the community to control these problems.
In this manuscript a simple approach is discussed to fabricate uniform periodic surface structures on semiconductor surfaces by femtosecond laser irradiation for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. Gold films having different thickness are first deposited on semiconductor silicon (Si) surfaces and then periodic surface structures are fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation. The periodic structures are observed to be uniform over a large area with chain type structure formation of gold and Si. We have studied the formation of these surface structures on Si surface by having different thickness gold films deposited on Si substrates. This approach of the fabrication of surface structures with the assistance of gold film is found to help in local field enhancement and hence work as suitable substrate for the SERS experiments. The conditions for achieving high enhancement factor in SERS with different gold film thicknesses are explored in detail. We also present here the formation of low frequency ripples on Silicon (Si) and high frequency as well as low frequency ripples on titanium (Ti) surface in air and water environments by irradiation with fs laser pulses. Different morphologies were observed on Ti surface depending upon the laser irradiation parameters and the surrounding dielectric medium.
Fractals have unique properties such as self-similarity and space-filling. The use of fractal geometry in antenna design provides a good method for achieving the desired miniaturization, multi-band, and wideband properties. In this communication, novel fractal geometry is proposed based on which a multiband antenna is designed. The proposed antenna has fractal patches which are shaped as different iterations of an eight-pointed star. The multiband behavior is in the frequency range from 4.50 to 17.00 GHz. The proposed antenna is designed on a dielectric substrate Roggers RO4003 lossy with a dielectric constant of εr = 3.55. The antenna has applications in commercial and military communication system.
To determine if total lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive functioning with aging and if cerebrovascular function mediates this association. A sample of 226 (52.2% female) community dwelling middle-aged and older adults (66.5±6.4 years) in the Brain in Motion Study, completed the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent neuropsychological and cerebrovascular blood flow testing. Multiple robust linear regressions were used to model the associations between lifetime PA and global cognition after adjusting for age, sex, North American Adult Reading Test results (i.e., an estimate of premorbid intellectual ability), maximal aerobic capacity, body mass index and interactions between age, sex, and lifetime PA. Mediation analysis assessed the effect of cerebrovascular measures on the association between lifetime PA and global cognition. Post hoc analyses assessed past year PA and current fitness levels relation to global cognition and cerebrovascular measures. Better global cognitive performance was associated with higher lifetime PA (p=.045), recreational PA (p=.021), and vigorous intensity PA (p=.004), PA between the ages of 0 and 20 years (p=.036), and between the ages of 21 and 35 years (p<.0001). Cerebrovascular measures did not mediate the association between PA and global cognition scores (p>.5), but partially mediated the relation between current fitness and global cognition. This study revealed significant associations between higher levels of PA (i.e., total lifetime, recreational, vigorous PA, and past year) and better cognitive function in later life. Current fitness levels relation to cognitive function may be partially mediated through current cerebrovascular function. (JINS, 2015, 21, 816–830)
We compute the drag on a circular and liquid microdomain diffusing in a two-dimensional fluid lipid bilayer membrane surrounded by a fluid above and below. Under the assumptions that the liquids are incompressible and the flow is of low Reynolds number, Stokes’ equations describe the flow in the two-dimensional membrane as well as in the surrounding three-dimensional fluid. The expression for the drag force on the liquid domain involves Fredholm integral equations of the second kind, which we numerically solve using discrete collocation method based on Chebyshev polynomials. We observe that when the domain is more viscous than the surrounding membrane (including the rigid domain case), the drag force is almost independent of the viscosity contrast between the domain and the surrounding membrane, as also observed earlier in experiments by other researchers. The mobility also varies logarithmically with Boussinesq number
. On the other hand, for a less viscous domain the dimensionless drag force reduces with increasing viscosity contrast, and a significant change in the drag force, from that when there is no viscosity contrast or when the domain is rigid, has been observed. Further, the logarithmic behaviour of the mobility no longer holds for less viscous domains. Our method of computing the drag force and diffusion coefficient is valid for arbitrary viscosity contrast between the domain and membrane and any domain size (subject to
High temperature stress at critical growth stages is a major risk factor for wheat in many wheat growing areas globally. Developing weather indices relating to yield reductions in wheat is an urgent requirement for weather-index-based crop insurance. The objectives of the present study were to: (i) identify critical phenological stage(s) for heat stress, (ii) quantify the impact of heat stress at critical growth stage(s) and (iii) work out thresholds of temperature for obtaining above average, average and below average yield of wheat. For achieving these objectives, 11 years’ experimental data for three cultivars (HD-2285, K-8804 and K-9107) under three sowing dates at the Kanpur Centre located in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of Uttar Pradesh, India were used. Among the eight phenological stages, the milk stage (growth stage 73) was identified as most sensitive for high maximum and minimum temperatures to adversely affect yield. The rate of yield reduction with unit increase in maximum and minimum temperatures (°C) was found to be highest in K-8804 and lowest in HD-2285. The optimum ranges of maximum temperature during anthesis, milk, dough and maturity stages are 19·7–21·9, 24·2–26·5, 26·1–28·8 and 29·5–30·8 °C, respectively and those for minimum temperature are 4·3–6·2, 8·3–9·7, 11·5–12·4 and 13·0–15·1 °C, respectively. The thresholds of temperature during critical stages and quantification of heat stress on yield will be of use in devising weather-index-based crop insurance products in wheat and also for breeding temperature-stress-resistant genotypes. This method of devising weather indices in the present study can be used in other crops and regions of the world as an adaptation strategy for climate change.